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Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 15



A History of Martello Towers in the Defence of British North America, 1796-1871

by Ivan J. Saunders

Endnotes

Historical Background

1 S. P. G. Ward, "Defence Works in Britain, 1803-1805," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Vol. 27 (1947), p. 34. Much of the British background to Martello towers in this chapter is drawn from the above source.

2 Charles William Pasley, A Course in Elementary Fortification (London, 1822), pp. 472-5.

3 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., pp. 28, 35.

4 Bryan Hugh St. John O'Neil, Castles and Cannon: A Study of Early Artillery Fortifications in England (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), pp. 49, 58.

5 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., pp. 27-8.

6 Ibid., pp. 27-30; John Holland Rose and Alexander Mayrick Broadley, Dumouriez and the Defence of England (London: J. Lane, 1908), p. 234.

7 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., p. 27.

8 J. H. Rose and A. M. Broadley, op. cit., p. 234.

9 Canada. Public Archives (hereafter cited as PAC), Nova Scotia A, Vol. 123, pp. 180-91, Edward to Portland, 15 Aug. 1796; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1427, p. 75, Straton to Cornwallis, 14 Aug. 1796.

10 C. W. Pasley, op. cit., p. 473.

11 Ibid., p. 482.

12 S. P. G. Ward, "Defence Works to Britain, 1803-1805," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Vol. 27 (1947), pp. 28, 35-6.

13 Ibid., p. 36.

14 Ibid., pp. 27-8.

15 Ibid., p. 29.

16 The Horse Guards had the direction of the military chain of command. Its responsibilities included the Quartermaster's Department and the strictly military officers. It was controlled by the ministry of the Secretary of State for War. The Board of Ordnance was a separate department of state. The Master General of the Board of Ordnance had direct control of the engineers and artillery through their respective inspector generals. It was generally recognized that emergency fieldworks were the prerogative of the Quartermaster's Department while fortifications of a permanent nature were a responsibility of the Board of Ordnance. As the Ordnance was charged with the maintenance as well as the construction of these works it had recourse to an annual parliamentary vote for its funds. The Quartermaster's Department had no regular access to monies and was forced to request fixed sums for specific purposes from the treasury in each case. This division was carried over to colonial service. There, however, the demand was not generally made on the treasury in the first instance but was drawn from the contingency fund available to the commander of the forces. He would then seek recompense from the treasury for the expenditures. The separate and distinct ordnance entity within the army as a whole was maintained into the 1850s, with engineer officers holding rank jointly in the army and their own corps.

17 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., p. 29, J. H. Rose and A. M. Broadley, op. cit., p. 234.

18 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., p. 28.

19 Ibid., p. 30 quoting PAC, WO1, Vol. 783, pp. 297-9, Report, dated Inspector-General's Office, 29 April 1804.

20 C. W. Pasley, op. cit., pp. 480-1; S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., pp. 30-1.

21 W. H. Lapthorne, "Martello Towers," In Britain, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1967), pp. 33-5.

22 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., pp. 32-3.

23 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., pp. 32-3, 37; W. H. Lapthorne, op. cit., p. 34.

24 PAC, WO1, Vol. 553, p, 653, Murray to Stanley, 28 July 1845.

25 Colonel Lewis, R. E., "Report on the Application of Forts, Towers, and Batteries to Coast Defences, and Harbours," Professional Papers of the Royal Engineers, Vol. 7 (1844), pp. 1-8, and following plates.

26 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., p. 37, quoting PAC, WO80, Vol. 8, Wellington to Murray, 6 Nov. 1845.

27 General Sir John Burgoyne, "Memorandum of the Increased power of Breaching to be obtained by the Use of Rifled Ordnance." Professional Papers of the Royal Engineers, n.s., Vol. 10 (1861), pp. 1-7.

28 C. W. Pasley, op. cit., p. 481; S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., p. 31; Nova Scotia. Public Archives (hereafter cited as PANS), view, plan, and section of Sherbrooke Tower as completed in 1828.

29 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., p. 32 and p. 33, n. 283. Evidence of the composition of the Canadian towers has been derived from a close examination of many plans and reports relating to the structural materials of the towers.

30 C. W. Pasley, op. cit., p. 476.

31 S. P. G. Ward. op. cit., p. 31; C. W. Pasley, op. cit., p. 476.

32 C. W. Pasley, op. cit., pp. 481-2.

33 Great Britain. Army. Corps of Royal Engineers, "Note on the Coast Defence Towers approved by Napoleon," Professional Papers of the Royal Engineers, Vol. 3 (1839), pp. 101-9.

34 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., p. 37.


The Era of Great Construction: 1796-1815

1 Robert Morse, "Report on Nova Scotia, 1784," Report on Canadian Archives (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1885), pp. xliiii-xlvi.

2 PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 77, pp. 225-39, Sargent to Sullivan, 30 Nov. 1802.

3 PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 121, pp. 298-324, Edward to Dundas, ll Nov. 1794; ibid., Vol. 124, pp. 138-49, Edward to Portland, 29 Oct. 1796.

4 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1427, p. 75, Straton to Cornwallis, 14 Aug. 1796, PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 124, pp. 156-61, Portland to Edward, 31 Oct. 1796; PANS, RE B, Straton to Edward, 3 Sept. 1796; PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 126, pp. 5-15, Edward to Portland, 12 Aug. 1797; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1427, p. 144, Straton to Crew, 18 Nov. 1797; PANS, RE B, p. 163, Straton to Edward, 30 Aug. 1898.

5 PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 121, pp. 298-324, Edward to Dundas, 11 Nov. 1794.

6 Ibid., Vol. 123, pp. 180-91, Edward to Portland, 15 Aug. 1796.

7 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1427, pp. 61-2, Straton to Green, 20 July 1796.

8 PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 125, pp. 48-66, Edward to Portland, 16 Feb. 1797.

9 Ibid., Vol. 124, pp. 156-61, Portland to Edward, 1 Nov. 1796, (enclosure) Crew to King, 31 Oct. 1796; ibid., Vol. 126, pp. 5-15, Edward to Portland, 12 Aug. 1797.

10 Ibid., Vol. 126, Prince of Wales Tower estimate, 1797; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1427, p. 144, Straton to Crew, 18 Nov. 1797; PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 126, Prince of Wales Tower estimate, 1797; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 857, p. 15, Edward to Cornwallis, 16 Dec. 1797; PANS, RE B, p. 163, Straton to Edward, 30 Aug. 1798.

11 PAC, Prince of Wales Tower, 1812, plans and section; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 857, p. A1, Fenwick to Crew, 6 May 1803; George Munroe, "The Prince of Wales Tower, Halifax, N.S." Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa. Vol. 1, p. 3.

12 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 858, p. 564, 1 Aug. 1805, Fenwick's report on the Halifax defences; PANS, RE5, p. 68. MacLauchlan to Bruyeres, 18 April 1808.

13 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1427, pp. 189-90, Fenwick to Straton, 3 April 1800; PAC, Prince of Wales Tower, 1812, plans and section; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 858, abstract to Prince of Wales Tower expenses, 1805-06, dated 30 June 1806; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 144, p. 136, Report on the Halifax defences, 1 July 1810.

14 PAC, Prince of Wales Tower, 1812, plans and section.

15 PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 126, Prince of Wales Tower estimate, 1797; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1432, Reynett to Fenwick, 26 April 1805.

16 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 144, p. 136, Report on the Halifax defences, 1 July 1810; PANS, RE14, pp. 144-8, Nova Scotia Annual Estimate for 1810, Morse to Crew, 16 July 1810, Crew to Morse, 25 July 1810, Handfield to Nicolls, 1 Aug. 1810; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 857, p. 191, Fenwick to Crew, 6 May 1803; ibid., Vol. 857, p. 206, Report on the Halifax defences, 4 May 1804; PANS, RE52, Reports on Military Works in the N.S. Command, 1 Jan. 1812, 1 Jan. 1813; PAC, Prince of Wales Tower, 1812, plans and section.

17 PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 78, p. 18, Bowyer to Hobart, 8 Nov. 1802; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 147, p. 165, Report on the Nova Scotia Ordnance Establishment, 30 Sept. 1808; ibid., Vol. 144, p. 136, Report on the Halifax Works, 1 July 1810; ibid., Vol. 80, p. 348. Return of Forts and Batteries in Nova Scotia, 1 July 1812; PANS, RE52, Return of Forts and Batteries in the Nova Scotia Command, 1 Jan. 1813.

18 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1428, p. 209, Fenwick to Bowyer, 25 June 1805; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 144, p. 136, Report on the Halifax Works, 1 July 1810; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1706, pp. 24-5, James to Prevost, 1 May 1811; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 95, p. 240, Report on Forts and Batteries in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1 Jan. 1817; ibid., Vol. 144, p. 136, Report on the Halifax Works, 1 July 1810.

19 Ibid., Vol. 80, p. 348, Return of Forts and Batteries in Nova Scotia, 1 July 1812.

20 PANS, RE23, Colonel Jervois' Minute, 29 July 1856, with regard to Halifax defences; Harry Piers, The Evolution of the Halifax Fortress: 1749-7928, rev. ed. (Halifax. N.S.: PANS, 1947), p. 103; Robert Morse, op. cit., p. xliv; PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 124, pp. 138-49, Edward to Portland, 29 Oct. 1796; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 857, p. 27, Straton to Edward, 17 April 1798; ibid., Vol. 857, p. 191, Fenwick to Crew, 6 May 1803.

21 Ibid., Vol. 858, p. 569, Fenwick's report on the Halifax defences, 1 Aug. 1805; PAC, Fort Clarence and Tower, 1853, plan; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1825, Willis to Commanding Royal Engineer, 7 July 1849; PAC, Fort Clarence and Tower, 1853, plan; PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 80, pp. 304, Fenwick to Gardiner, 1 Aug. 1805; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1825, pp. 371-4, Willis to Commanding Royal Engineer, 7 July 1849.

22 Ibid.; PAC, Fort Clarence and Tower, 1853, plan; PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 80, pp. 304-10, Fenwick to Gardiner, 1 Aug. 1805.

23 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 857, p. 191, Fenwick to Crew, 6 May 1803.

24 PANS, RE52, Semi-annual report on Maritime Forts and Batteries, 1 Jan. 1813; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1825, pp. 371-4, Willis to Commanding Royal Engineer, 7 July 1849; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 80, p. 348, Return of Nova Scotia Forts and Batteries, 1 July 1812; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1706, p. 135, Nicolls to Morse, 10 April 1811; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 859, Halifax repair estimate, 18 April 1811; PANS, RE53, Semi-annual report on Maritime Forts and Batteries, 1 Jan. 1813; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 81, p. 108, Royal Engineer Department expenses, 1 Oct. 1811-30, Sept. 1812; PAC, Fort Clarence and tower, 1853, plan; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1825, pp. 371-4, Willis to Commanding Royal Engineer, 7 July 1849; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 81, p. 108, Royal Engineer Department Expenses, 1 Oct. 1811-30 Sept. 1812; PANS, RE52, report on Maritime Forts and Batteries, 1 Jan. 1813.

25 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 84, p. 201, Meredith to the Master General of the Board of Ordnance, 21 March 1808; ibid., Vol. 144, p. 136, report on the Halifax works, 1 July 1810; ibid., Vol. 83, p. 217, return of the Nova Scotia Ordnance Establishment, 1 July 1813.

26 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1825, pp. 371-4, Willis to Commanding Royal Engineer, 7 July 1849; PAC, WO44, Vol. 84, p. 201, Meredith to the Master General of the Board of Ordnance, 21 March 1808; ibid., Vol. 95, p. 240, Report on the Forts and Batteries in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1 Jan. 1817.

27 PANS, RE52, Report on Maritime Forts and Batteries, 1 July 1812; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 80, p. 348, Nicolls return of Nova Scotia forts and batteries, 1 July 1812.

28 PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 121, Edward to Dundas, 11 Nov. 1794; ibid., Vol. 124, pp. 138-49, Edward to Portland, 29 Oct. 1796; Harry Piers, op. cit., p. 105; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 148, p. 138, estimate for a new York Redoubt Tower roof, 20 Oct. 1823; ibid., Vol. 174, 1849 plan of top of York Redoubt Tower; PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 80. pp. 304-10, Fenwick to Gardiner, 1 Aug. 1805.

29 Ibid.

30 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 148, p. 138, estimate for a new York Redoubt Tower roof, 20 Oct. 1823; PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 80, pp. 304-10, Fenwick to Gardiner, 1 August 1805; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 84, p. 201, Meredith to the Master General of the Board of Ordnance, 21 March 1808; PANS, ground plan of York Redoubt, n.d.; ibid., Vol. 174, 1849 plan of top of York Redoubt Tower.

31 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 859, p. 390, Nicolls estimate for a York Redoubt Tower Magazine, 18 April 1811; PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 80, pp. 304-10, Fenwick to Gardiner, 1 Aug. 1805; PANS, RE5, p. 37, MacLauchlan to Morse, 8 Oct. 1807; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 144, p. 136, report on the Halifax Works, 1 July 1810.

32 Ibid., Vol. 84, p. 201, report on Halifax Forts and Batteries, 21 March 1808; ibid., Vol. 144, p. 136, Report on the Halifax works, 1 July 1810; ibid., Vol. 95, p. 240, Report on Forts and Batteries in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1 Jan. 1817; ibid., Vol. 80, p. 348, Nicolls report on Nova Scotia forts and batteries, 1 July 1812.

33 PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 132, pp. 140-6, Wentworth to King, 29 Aug. 1800; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 84, p. 14, Report on Halifax tower defences, 1 July 1814; PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 80, p. 301, Gardiner to Gordon, 16 Sept. 1805; PANS, RE52, Semi-Annual Report on Maritime defences, 1 July 1812; PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 78, p. 19, Fenwick's report on the state of the Halifax works, 6 May 1803.

34 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1427, p. 256, Fenwick to Morse, 25 Nov. 1801; P.R.O., MPH/489, Estimate for a tower on Georges Island, 18 Jan. 1800, and plan, section, and elevation of a proposed Citadel Hill work, 20 Jan. 1800.

35 PANS, RE5, p. 57, MacLauchlan to Morse, 2 March 1808; PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 83, pp. 3-8, Provost to Castlereagh, 25 May 1808.

36 Ibid., Vol. 82, pp. 122-5, Hunter to Cooke, 27 March 1808.

37 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 857, p. 500, Nicolls to Prevost, 25 May 1808.

38 PAC, MG11, CO217, Vol. 83, pp. 3-8, Prevost to Castlereagh, 28 May 1808, Enclosure, Nicolls to Prevost, 25 May 1808.

39 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 9, Mann to Hunter, 1 August 1804.

40 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 857, p. 408, Mann to Hunter, 1 Aug. 1804.

41 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 385, pp. 13-21, Engineer Commit — the report on Gother Mann's Quebec Defence Plan, 14 March 1805; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 857, p. 423, Mann to Chatham, 22 March 1805.

42 Ibid., Vol. 857, p. 427, Chatham to Camden, 5 July 1805.

43 PAC, MG11, CO42, Vol. 134. pp. 135-45, Governor Sir James Craig's Instructions, August 1807.

44 John Mackay Hitsman, Safeguarding Canada: 1763-1871 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968), p. 75.

45 PAC, MG11, CO42, Vol. 136, pp. 126-34, Craig to Castlereagh, 12 July 1808.

46 Ibid., Vol. 132, pp. 135-45, Governor Sir James Craig's instructions, August 1807; ibid., Vol. 136, pp. 126-34, Craig to Castlereagh, 12 July 1808.

47 Ibid., Vol. 136, pp. 126-34, Craig to Castlereagh, 12 July 1808.

48 Ibid., Vol. 136, pp. 189-90, Craig to Cooke (private), 15 July 1808.

49 PANS, RE5, p. 68, MacLauchlan to Bruyeres, 18 April 1808; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 859, p. 431, Bruyeres to Morse, 16 Nov. 1810; S. G. P. Ward, "Defence Works in Britain, 1803-1805," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Vol. 27 (1947), p. 21.

50 PAC, MG11, CO42, Vol. 136, pp. 126-34, Craig to Castlereagh, 12 July 1808, enclosure, Bruyeres to Craig, 9 July 1808; PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 6, part 2, p. 25, Smyth Report of 1825.

51 PAC, MG11, CO42, Vol. 136, 126-34, Craig to Castlereagh, 12 July 1808, enclosure, Bruyeres to Craig, 9 July 1808; ibid., Vol. 141, pp. 125-8, an explanation of comparative engineer department expenditures for Canada, 1804 to 1809.

52 Ibid., Vol. 142, pp. 58-60, Craig to Liverpool, 6 Oct. 1810; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1706, p. 154, Bruyeres, Report on Canada Fortifications, 24 Aug. 1811; PAC, MG11, CO42, Vol. 143, pp. 172-5, Prevost to Liverpool, 7 Nov. 1811, enclosure, Bruyeres to Prevost, 31 Oct. 1811; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 386, p. 2, Liverpool to Prevost, 5 Feb. 1812; ibid., Vol. 1707, p. 82, Return of Mounted Ordnance in Lower Canada, 15 Dec. 1812.

53 Ibid., Vol. 1706, p. 154, Bruyeres, Report on Canada Fortifications, 24 Aug. 1811; ibid., Vol. 386, pp. 10-12, petition, Boutillier to Prevost, 27 Feb. 1812; PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 9, Mann to Hunter, 1 Aug. 1804; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 40, p. 400, Return of Ordnance Lands at Quebec, 18 Nov. 1826.

54 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1706, p. 154, Bruyeres, Report on Canada Fortifications, 2S August 1811; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 391, pp. 34-5, Nicolls to Foster, 17 Oct. 1815; PAC, MG11, CO42, Vol. 143, pp. 172-5, Provost to Liverpool, 7 Nov. 1811, enclosure, Bruyeres to Prevost, 31 Oct. 1811; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 860, p. 191, Services ordered for Quebec for 1816; PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 34, pp. 76-7, Harrison to Jervois, Report on Barrack Accommodation in the Canadas, 8 April 1864.

55 PAC, Plans, Sections, and Elevations of the Quebec City Martello towers, 23 Sept. 1823.

56 Ibid.

57 Ibid.; PAC, 1867 Plan of No. 2 Tower, Quebec; PAC, 25 Jan. 1865, Quebec Tower Plan.

58 PAC, Plans, Sections, and Elevations of the Quebec City Martello Towers, 23 Sept. 1823.

59 Ibid.; PAC, 25 Jan. 1865, Quebec Tower Plan.

60 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1706, p. 154, Bruyeres, Report on Canada Fortifications, 24 Aug. 1811; ibid., Vol. 1707, p. 82, Return of Mounted Ordnance in Lower Canada, 15 Dec. 1812.

61 PAC, Plans, Sections, and Elevations of the Quebec City Martello towers, 23 Sept. 1823; PAC, plan and section of top of No. 4 tower, Quebec City, 29 May 1860.

62 Robert Morse, op. cit., p. xliii; PAC, Nova Scotia A, Vol. 121, p. 302, Edward to Dundas, 11 Nov. 1794; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 1558, Section 4, Report on Georges Island to accompany tower proposal of 18 Jan. 1800; PAC, MG11 CO217, Vol. 80, pp. 304-10, Fenwick to Gardiner, 1 Aug. 1805; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 857, p. 327, Fenwick to Morse, 1 April 1805; PANS, RE5, p. 139, Nicolls to Mann, 8 Aug. 1812; PANS, RE14, p. 199, Engineer Committee Report, 4 March 1810; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1706, pp. 190-1, Nicolls to Prevost, 3 Dec. 1811; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 83, Abstract of Georges Island Accounts, 1 Oct. 1812-30 Sept. 1813; PANS, RE5, p. 121, Nicolls to Morse, 6 May 1811; PANS, RE5, semi-annual Nova Scotia fort and battery reports, 4 April 1812, 1 July 1812, 1 Jan, 1813.

63 Harry Piers, op. cit., p. 105; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1653A, p. 188, Sketch of the ground floor of the Georges Island Tower, 29 Dec. 1859; PANS, RE37, Henry Wentworth's memorandum on Georges Island defences, 2 April 1839; PAC, MG12, WO55, vol. 859, p. 382, Nicolls to Morse, 1 Nov. 1812.

64 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1827, pp. 118-9, Dimensions of the buildings on Georges Island 12 Jan. 1864; PANS, RE52, Semi-annual Report on maritime forts and batteries, 5 April 1813; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 84, p. 14, Report on Halifax tower defences, 1 July 1814; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1653A, p. 188, sketch of the ground floor of the Georges Island tower, 29 Dec. 1859; PANS, RE37, Henry Wentworth's memorandum on Georges Island defences, 2 April 1839; PANS, RE23, p. 206, Jervois' memorandum on the Halifax Defence Commission Report of 1856, 29 July 1856.

65 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 145, p. 21, Nicolls to Sherbrooke, 14 Nov. 1852; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1458, p. 283, MacLauchlan, Report on Maritime forts and batteries, 10 Oct. 1817.

66 PAC, Ordnance Map of Saint John, New Brunswick, 30 Sept. 1815.

67 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1457, pp. 5-6, MacLauchlan to Walker, 1 Nov. 1814; ibid., Vol. 1457, p. 49, Wright to Walker, 8 May 1815; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 860, p. 412, MacLauchlan to Mann, 30 Oct. 1814; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1437, p. 36, Daniel to Walker, 21 Match 1815; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 243, p. 254, Report on New Brunswick Buildings, Forts, and Ordnance, 1 Nov. 1815.

68 PANS, plan and section of proposed tower for Carleton, New Brunswick, 30 March 1813. National Historic Parks and Sites Branch has found drawings for Carleton Martello Tower: see Peter Stokes, "Carleton Martello Tower." Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1963; Judith Tulloch, "The Carleton Martello Tower." Manuscript on file. National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa 1969.

69 PANS, plan and section of a tower proposed for Carleton, New Brunswick, 30 March 1813; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 95, p. 240, Report on forts and batteries in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1 Jan. 1817; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 243, p. 259, Report on New Brunswick batteries, buildings, and ordnance, 1 Nov. 1815; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1458, p. 283, Report on New Brunswick batteries and blockhouses, 10 Oct. 1817.

70 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 860, p. 385, Crew to Mann, 1 July 1816.

71 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 81, p. 46, Nicolls to Mann, 23 Jan. 1813; PANS, RE23, pp. 204-13, Jervois' Minute to Inspector General of Fortifications, 29 July 1856; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 860, Mann to Nicolls, 27 March 1813; Harry Piers, op. cit., p. 36.

72 PANS, RE5, pp. 188-90, Wright to Mann, 2 Sept. 1815, 24 Aug. 1816; PANS, RE15, p. 48, Handfield to Wright, 4 Oct. 1815; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 860, p. 385, Crew to Mann, 1 July 1816; PANS, RE6, Arnold to Mann, 26 Dec. 1818.

73 PAC, plans and sections of a tower proposed for Mauger's Beach, Halifax, 28 Jan. 1813, and 1815; PAC, plan and section of Sherbrooke Tower as completed, 14 Nov. 1828.


Stasis and Neglect: 1815-45

1 S. P. G. Ward, op. cit., p. 20. British North American experience in the divided responsibility for the maintenance of the towers is documented in a wide variety of examples in PAC, RG8, C Series. These are too numerous to cite individually.

2 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 6, part 2, pp. 22-3, Appendix A, Smyth Report of 1825, PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 871, p. 158, Ordnance return for the Quebec fortifications, 21 May 1834; PANS, RE53, report on maritime defences, 13 Aug. 1834; PANS, RE37, Wentworth memorandum on Georges Island, 2 April 1839; PANS, RE29, p. 139, Boteler report on Halifax, 14 Feb. 1832; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 439, Report on the state of the Halifax works, 25 Feb. 1852; PANS, RE29, 11 Feb. 1832.

3 PANS, RE6, Arnold to Mann, 26 Dec. 1818; PANS, Plan and section of Sherbrooke Tower as completed, 14 Nov. 1828; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1457, p. 226, Arnold to Barry, 1 Oct. 1822; PANS, RE17, Byham to the Respective Officers at Halifax, 9 Jan. 1824; PANS, RE16, p. 185, Byham to Respective Officers at Halifax, 26 Feb. 1823; PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 81, p. 57, Durnford's Canada barrack report, 24 Sept. 1823; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 148, p. 138, estimate of a new roof for the York Redoubt Tower, 20 Oct. 1823.

4 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 92, pp. 85-7, Forster's reports on the Royal Artillery in Nova Scotia, 23 March 1821, PANS, RE53, Report on maritime defences, 14 May 1828; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 496, Calder to George, 30 March 1844; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1431, p. 141, Report on the York Redoubt Tower, 12 Oct. 1864.

5 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 6, part 2, Appendix A, Smyth Report of 1825, Quebec City.

6 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 81, p. 57, Durnford's report on Canada barrack accommodation, 24 Sept. 1823; PANS, RE37, Wentworth's memorandum on Georges Island, 2 April 1839.

7 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1825, pp. 371-4, Willis to the Commanding Royal Engineer, N.S., 7 July 1849; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 15631/2, p. 114, Report on the state of the Royal Artillery in Canada, 29 Oct. 1845; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 1232, p. 51, Bell to Ross, 30 Sept. 1853; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 438, Report on the state of the Halifax works, 25 July 1852.

8 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 13, Durnford to Mann, 14 Jan. 1817; PAC, MG12, WO80, Vol. II, Wellington to Bathurst, 1 March 1819; John Oliver Dendy, "The Strategic Importance of Kingston: A Study of the Role Played by the British Base at Kingston, Ontario in the Defence of Canada, 1778-1854," Unpubl. M. A. thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, 1965. Dendy quotes PAC, MG11, Q Series, Vol. 149, part 1, pp. 122-9, Richmond to Bathurst, 10 Nov. 1818.

9 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 862, p. 555, Arnold to Ellicombe, 14 Nov. 1824.

10 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 6, part 2, Smyth Report of 1825.

11 Ibid., p. 119.

12 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 863, p. 506, Nicolls to Kempt, 13 May 1826.

13 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 863, p. 470, Butler to Mann, 30 June 1826, with marginal note, 4 July 1826; PANS, RE28, p. 74, Nicolls to Harris, 5 April 1827; Harry Piers, op. cit., p. 46; PANS, plan, section, and elevation of the completed Sherbrooke Tower, Nov. 1828; PANS, RE29, p. 159, Boteler report on the delivery of three platforms for Sherbrooke Tower, 11 July 1832.

14 PANS, RE53, Report on Maritime Defence, 13 Aug. 1834.

15 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 6, part 2, Appendix A, p. 22, Smyth Report of 1825; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 864, pp. 505, 515, Nicolls to Mann, 5 June 1827, enclosing Graydon's tower estimate of Jan. 1827; ibid., Vol. 864, p. 510, Graydon's report on the defences of Partridge Island, 29 June 1827.

16 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 864, p. 515, Smyth to Mann, 20 Sept. 1827; ibid., Vol. 520, Bonnycastle to Wright, 10 Nov. 1827; ibid., Vol. 1886, Engineer Committee report of 1829; ibid., Vol. 874, p. 332, Wright to Mulcaster, 1 Feb. 1839; ibid., Vol. 874, p. 328, Oldfield to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 19 Oct. 1839, with a marginal note signed Mulcaster, 21 Dec. 1839; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 45, p. 721, specifications for the proposed Kingston towers; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 155865, pp. 4-9, Nicolls report of 30 June 1827; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1461, p. 27, Hawkshaw to Jones, 1 Aug. 1839; PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 538, p. 143, Harvey to Stanley, 30 Nov. 1841.

17 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol, 862, p. 75, Instructions issued to the Smyth Commission of 1825.

18 PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 536, p. 147, Wellington to Bathurst, 6 Dec. 1825.

19 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 865, pp. 171-83, Smyth to Mann, 23 March 1828; ibid., Vol. 864, p. 515, Smyth to Mann, 20 Sept. 1827.

20 PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 536, p. 131, Stephen to Byham, 11 March 1840.

21 Ibid., Vol. 536, p. 135, R. D. Jackson's memorandum on Canadian defence, 14 Nov. 1840.

22 Ibid., Vol. 536, p. 149, Vivian to Russell, 18 Feb. 1841.

23 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 36, p. 252, Oldfield's plan for the defence of Montreal, 25 March 1840.

24 Ibid., Vol. 881, pp. 337-82, Holloway to Burgoyne, 19 Feb. 1847.

25 PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 536, p. 143, Oldfield to Jackson, 14 Nov. 1840; ibid., Vol. 536, p. 50, Oldfield to Jackson, 20 Nov. 1840; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 37, pp. 163-5, plan of a tower proposed for Chippawa, 4 Oct. 1841; ibid., Vol. 36, p. 20, plan of the towers proposed for St. John's, L.C., 31 Dec. 1840; PAC, plan of the fort at St. John's, L.C., with a plan of the proposed tower, 11 Jan. 1840.

26 PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 538, Harvey to Stanley, 23 March 1842; ibid., Vol. 542, pp. 78-86, Harvey to Stanley, 10 June 1845, with marginal note initialled J.S., 3 July 1845.

27 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 37, p. 127, Oldfield to Mulcaster, 4 Oct. 1841.

28 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 880, p. 747, Holloway to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 12 June 1846; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 37, p. 72, plans of the towers proposed for LÚvis.

29 John Mackay Hitsman, Safeguarding Canada, 1763-1871 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968), p. 145.

30 PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 536, p. 149, Vivian to Russell, 18 Feb. 1841.

31 Ibid., Vol. 540, p. 27, Commander of the Forces, Canada, to Lord Stanley, 22 May 1844; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 879, p. 505, Holloway to Burgoyne, 11 Dec. 1845.

32 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, pp. 66-87, plan of the fortress proposed for Grand Falls, New Brunswick (ca. 1843); PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 880, pp. 668-709, revised plan of the fortress proposed for Grand Falls, N.B. 24 April 1844; PANS, RE20, p. 228, Byham to Burgoyne, 12 April 1847.

33 Basil Perronet Hughes, British Smooth Bore Artillery: The Muzzle-Loading Artillery of the 18th and 19th centuries (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1969), p. 30.

34 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 13, Durnford to Sherbrooke, report on the fortifications in the Canadas, 14 Nov. 1816; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 864, p. 532, Nicolls to Mann, 7 Nov. 1827.

3S Ibid., Vol. 874, p. 328, Oldfield to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 19 Oct. 1839.

36 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 41, p. 450, Statement of the powder requirement for Quebec, 28 Feb. 1829.

37 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 875, Oldfield to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 16 April 1840.

38 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 38, p. 220, Oldfield to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 1 Sept. 1841, with a marginal note initialled F. W. M.


The Construction and Arming of the Kingston Towers: 1845-63

1 G. F. G. Stanley, "Historic Kingston and its Defences," Ontario History Vol. 46, No. 1 (1954), pp. 21-35; W. S. Lavell, "The History of the present Fortifications at Kingston," Ontario History, Vol. 31 (1936), pp. 155-77; John Oliver Dendy, op cit., pp. 1-41; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1707, p. 168, Return of mounted ordnance, 17 July 1813.

2 PAC, RG1, Series II, Vol. 13, Durnford to Mann, 14 Jan. 1817, enclosure, Report on the Defence of Canada, 20 Nov. 1816.

3 J. O. Dendy, op. cit., pp. 51-2.

4 PAC, MG12, WO80, Vol. 11, Wellington to Bathurst, 1 March 1819.

5 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 6, part 2, pp. 39-44 and Appendix 3, Sir James Carmichael Smyth, Report Relative to His Majesty's North American Provinces, 1825.

6 Ibid., Vol. 14, Memorandum relative to the new works proposed by the Smyth Commission and approved by the Master General of the Ordnance, 31 March 1826.

7 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 864, p. 211, Durnford to Mann, 10 April 1827; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 40, p. 173, Wright to Durnford, 24 Feb. 1827; PAC, plan of the town and harbour of Kingston, 1826; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 40, p. 170, Gosset to Mann, 29 Oct. 1827; ibid., Vol. 40, p. 197, memorandum by Major General Smyth, 25 July 1827, with observations on Colonel Wright's report.

8 Ibid., Vol. 32, pp. 164-5, Treasury memorandum, 18 Dec. 1827; ibid., Vol. 32, pp. 81-7, Byham, instructions to Fanshawe and Lewis, 28 March 1828; PAC, plan of Kingston showing proposed fortifications, Oct. 1829; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 1886, report on the Kingston works sent to General Mann, 24 Oct. 1829; ibid., Vol. 883, Fanshawe and Lewis report on defence, 23 July 1828.

9 J. O. Dendy, op. cit., pp. 66-8.

10 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 883, p. 572, Fanshawe and Lewis report on defence, 23 July 1828.

11 Ibid., Vol. 878, p. 128, Butler to Mulcaster, 20 Sept. 1843.

12 J. O. Dendy, op. cit., p. 77; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 876, pp. 24-9, Sir Richard Jackson's memorandum, 14 Nov. 1840, accompanying the Master General of the Ordnance's Minute on Canadian Defence, 1 Feb. 1841.

13 Ibid., Vol. 877, p. 12, a copy of the master general's minute, 12 Jan. 1842, on a Treasury letter of 23 Nov. 1841.

14 Ibid., Vol. 874, p. 328, Oldfield to Mulcaster, 19 Oct. 1839, and the inspector general's note on the same, 21 Dec. 1839; ibid., Vol. 874, p. 332, Wright to Mulcaster, 1 Feb. 1839; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 45, p. 721, Specifications for the proposed Kingston towers, 1839; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 875, p. 319, updated Kingston estimate, 1840; ibid., Vol. 875, p. 424, Oldfield to Mulcaster, 14 Aug. 1840; PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 536, p. 145, Oldfield to Jackson, 14 Nov. 1840; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 876, p. 50, Oldfield to Mulcaster, 20 Nov. 1840.

15 Ibid., Vol. 876, p. 19, Murray to Mulcaster, 1 Feb. 1841.

16 PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 536, p. 150, Mulcaster to Vivian, 4 Feb. 1841; ibid., Vol. 536, Vivian to Russell, 18 Feb. 1841; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 876, p. 225, Byham to Mulcaster, 4 Aug. 1841.

17 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 876, p. 154, Murray to Mulcaster, 26 Aug. 1842, with note initialled G.M., 14 Sept. 1842; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 34, p. 149, Mulcaster to Byham, 20 Sept. 1842, and Treasury reply, 19 Oct. 1842.

18 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 877, p. 386, Stephen to Byham, 31 Oct. 1842; ibid., Vol. 878, pp. 328-46, Holloway to Mulcaster, 19 Dec. 1843.

19 Ibid., Vol. 878, p. 128, Butler to Mulcaster, 20 Sept. 1843.

20 Ibid., Vol. 878, pp. 117-26, Murray to Stanley, 7 Sept. 1843; PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 539, p. 109, draft Colonial office dispatch to Sir Charles Metcalfe, 14 Sept. 1843.

21 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 43, p. 60, Trevelyan to the Secretary of the Board of Ordnance, 1 April 1844; ibid., Vol. 34, Stephen to Byham, 13 May 1844; PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 541, p. 328, Byham to Trevelyan, 22 April 1844; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 878, p. 167, confidential memo, Murray to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 18 May 1844.

22 John Mackay Hitsman, Safeguarding Canada 1763-1871 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968), pp. 144-6.

23 Ibid., pp. 145-6.

24 W. S. Lavell, op. cit., p. 158.

25 PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 553, p. 547, Stanley to Murray, 23 Jan. 1845; ibid., Vol. 553, p. 643, Murray to Stanley, 28 July 1845; PAC, plans of Kingston towers, dated 11 Jan, 1841, to accompany letter of Oldfield to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 24 Jan. 1841

26 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 41, Holloway to Mulcaster, 12 June 1845.

27 Ibid.

28 PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 553, p. 643, Murray to Stanley, 28 July 1845.

29 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 40, Stanley to Murray, 15 Aug. 1845.

30 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 879, p. 188, Byham to Mulcaster, 28 Aug. 1845.

31 John Mackay Hitsman, Safeguarding Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968), pp. 147-8; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 15631/2, Holloway to Papineau, 4 Dec. 1845.

32 J. M. Hitsman, op. cit., p. 148; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1302, p. 4, Talbot to the Commissary General, Canada, 5 Feb. 1846.

33 PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 555, p. 441, Cathcart to Murray, 28 Jan. 1846, with minute signed J.F.B., 17 Feb. 1846.

34 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 41, Holloway to Mulcaster, 12 June 1845.

3S PAC, Contract plans for the Kingston Martello towers, 2 Jan. 1846.

36 PAC, Plan, Section, and Elevation of the tower proposed for Murney Point, Kingston, 19 Dec. 1845.

37 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 80, pp. 315-27, Holloway to Burgoyne, 24 Feb. 1846.

38 Ibid., Vol. 80, p. 69, Gladstone to Burgoyne, 3 March 1846.

39 PAC, MG12, WO1, Vol. 555, p. 441, Cathcart to the Master General of the Ordnance, 28 Jan. 1846. with minute signed J.F.B., 17 Feb. 1846; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1302, p. 45, Talbot to the Commanding Royal Engineer, Canada, 4 March 1846.

40 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 880, pp. 405-9, Holloway to Burgoyne, 25 March 1846; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 15631/2, Holloway to Campbell, 19 June 1846; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 880, p. 420, private, Holloway to Matson, 13 Sept. 1845; ibid., Vol. 881, pp. 337-82, Holloway to Burgoyne, 19 Feb. 1847, with note on same, 5 April 1847.

41 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 68, Holloway to Burgoyne, 10 Nov. 1846; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 881, p. 341, Bonnycastle to Holloway, 17 Dec. 1846; ibid., Vol. 881, pp. 337-82, Holloway to Burgoyne, 19 Feb. 1847.

42 Ibid., Vol. 881, p. 546, Holloway to Burgoyne, 21 Sept. 1847.

43 Ibid., Vol. 881, p. 700, Holloway to Burgoyne, 27 Oct. 1847; ibid., Vol. 883, p. 483, Holloway to Burgoyne, 22 Dec. 1847; ibid., Vol. 881, p. 546, Holloway to Burgoyne, 21 Sept. 1847.

44 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 15631/2, p. 277, Holloway to Campbell, 14 Aug. 1846.

45 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 879, p. 468, Holloway to Burgoyne, 10 Nov. 1845.

46 Ibid., Vol. 879, p. 464, Burgoyne to Murray, 2 Jan. 1846.

47 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 15631/2, p. 277, Holloway to Campbell, 14 Aug. 1846; PAC, Kingston, Branch Ditch Tower plan, 1 July 1846; PAC, Kingston, Martello tower barrack floor plans, 2 Oct. 1869; PAC, Kingston, Branch Ditch Tower elevation, 14 Oct. 1848; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 881, p. 700, Holloway to Burgoyne, 22 Dec. 1847; Lewis, "Report on Forts, Towers, and Batteries", pp. 1-8; PAC, Kingston, plan of a one gun tower proposed to be erected in advance of Fort Henry, 26 Jan. 1841; PAC, Kingston, Branch Ditch Tower plan, n.d.; PAC, Kingston, Branch Ditch Tower, lower floor plan, 1 July 1846; PAC, Kingston, East Branch Ditch Tower, revised ground floor plan, 1845.

48 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 41, Holloway to Mulcaster, 12 June 1845.

49 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 879, p. 188, Byham to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 28 Aug. 1845; PAC, Kingston, plan, section, and elevation of the tower proposed for Murney Point, 19 Dec. 1845.

50 PAC, Kingston, section and elevation of the Murray Redoubt, 16 May 1846; PAC, Kingston, Murney Tower basement floor plans, Jan. and June 1846; PAC, Kingston, Murney tower barrack floor plans, Jan, and June 1846, and Oct. 1869; PAC, Kingston, Murney Tower platform plans, January and May 1846, and plan and section, Dec. 1851; PAC, Kingston, plan, section, and elevation of the tower proposed for Murney Point, 19 Dec. 1845; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 880, pp. 315-27, Holloway to Burgoyne, 24 Feb. 1846.

51 Ibid., Vol. 879, p. 188, Byham to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 28 Aug. 1845.

52 PAC, Kingston, Fort Frederick Tower basement floor plan, 12 March 1846; lower barrack floor plan, 25 July 1846; lower barrack floor contract plan, 25 July 1846; caponier plan and section, 2 Jan. 1846; plan of Fort Frederick, 2 Jan. 1846; tower elevation, tower section, lower barrack floor plan, upper barrack floor plan, basement floor plan, and platform plan, all 9 March 1847; plan and section of tower platform, 23 Dec. 1851; plan of Fort Frederick, 15 April 1854; progress plan of Fort Frederick, 30 June 1847; ground section on proposed Fort Frederick work, 2 Jan. 1846.

53 PAC, Kingston, Cedar Island Tower, progress plan to 31 March 1848, Cedar Island Tower plan, 21 Feb. 1850; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 1886, Defence committee report of 24 Oct. 1829; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 41, Holloway to Mulcaster, 12 June 1845; PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 13, Durnford report on fortification and military buildings in the Canadas, 20 Nov. 1816; W. S. Lavell, op. cit., p. 171.

54 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 40, Stanley to Murray, 15 Aug. 1845; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 881, p. 546, Holloway to Burgoyne, 21 Sept. 1847.

55 PAC, Kingston, Cathcart Redoubt Section and elevation, 22 June 1846; PAC, Kingston, plans and section of Cedar Island Tower, 29 April 1859.

56 PAC, Kingston, plan and elevation of Cedar Island Tower, 2 Jan. 1846; PAC, Kingston, plan of the glacis proposed for Cedar Island Tower, 29 Aug. 1849; PAC, Kingston, plan of Cedar Island, 1 May 1850.

57 PAC, Kingston, Cathcart Redoubt, basement floor plans, 2 Jan., 22 June 1846; PAC, Kingston, section of the proposed Cathcart Redoubt, 21 March 1846; PAC, Kingston, Cathcart Redoubt, barrack floor and platform plans, 22 June 1846; PAC, Kingston, elevation of the proposed Cathcart Redoubt tower; PAC, Kingston, section and elevation of Cathcart Redoubt, 22 June 1846; PAC, Kingston, Cathcart Redoubt progress plan, 31 March 1846; PAC, Kingston, plans and section of Cedar Island Tower, 29 April 1859; PAC, Kingston, Cedar Island Tower platform plans and section, 23 Dec. 1851; PAC, Kingston, Cedar Island Tower barrack level and terreplein plans, 11 March 1846.

58 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 41, Holloway to Mulcaster, 12 June 1845.

59 Ibid., Vol. 49, p. 40, Stanley to the Master General of the Board of Ordnance, 15 Aug. 1845; PAC, Kingston, ground plans showing the areas transferred to the Government of Canada in 1870.

60 PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 41, Holloway to Mulcaster, 12 June 1845.

61 PAC, Kingston, plan of a coffer dam for the Market Shoal, 14 Feb. 1846; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1302, p. 45, Talbot to the Commanding Royal Engineer, 4 March 1846; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 881, p. 546, Holloway to Burgoyne, 21 Sept. 1847; W. S. Lavell, op. cit., pp. 168-9.

62 PAC, Kingston, Shoal Tower plan, 7 May 1867; plan and section, March 1848; platform and tower section, 16 Oct. 1846; barrack floor plan, 16 Sept. 1846; tower progress plan, 30 Sept, 1847; coffer-dam plan and section, 14 Feb. 1846; barrack floor plan, 2 Jan. 1846; basement floor plan, 1845; barrack floor plan, 17 March 1846; contractors' platform plan, 2 Jan. 1846; platform plan and section, 23 Dec. 1851; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 884, pp. 310-23, Holloway to Burgoyne, 26 Dec. 1849.

63 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1611, p. 210, Whittingham to Servante, n.d. [C Series, Vol. 861].

64 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 881, p. 546, Holloway to Burgoyne, 21 Sept. 1847.

65 Ibid., Vol. 881, p. 341, Bonnycastle to Holloway, 17 Dec. 1846.

66 Ibid., Vol. 881, pp. 337-82, Holloway to Burgoyne, 19 Dec. 1847.

67 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1280, O'Urban to Trevelyan, 14 Sept. 1848; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 882, p. 206, Byham to Fanshawe, 1 Dec. 1848; ibid., Vol. 883, p. 457, Holloway report on Kingston Barrack accommodation, 12 May 1849; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1635, Kingston Inspectional reports, 1852-69; ibid., Vol. 1654, p. 29, Deputy Quartermaster General, Montreal, to Vavasour, 16 Oct. 1849.

68 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 34, p. 97, Harrison's report on barrack accommodation in the Canadas, 8 April 1864; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1610, p. 304, Whittingham to Servante, 22 June 1860; ibid., Vol. 1654, p. 29, Deputy Quartermaster General, Montreal, to Vavasour, 16 Oct. 1849.

69 Ibid., Vol. 16531/2, p. 277, Holloway to Campbell, 14 Aug. 1846; ibid., Vol. 1585, p. 19, extract from William Francis Jervois, Report on the Defence of Canada, and The British Naval Stations in the North Atlantic: Together with Observations on the Defence of New Brunswick (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1864) (hereafter cited as Jervois, Report on the Defence of Canada); PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 101, Dyneley to Holloway, 24 July 1848.

70 Ibid., Vol. 49, p. 81, Commanding Royal Engineer, Canada, to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 1 Aug. 1850; ibid., Vol. 49, p. 100, Vavasour to Dyneley, 7 Nov. 1850.

71 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 884, pp. 310-23, Hewlett's report on the plans for the proposed armament of the Kingston Martello towers, 9 Oct. 1849, with Holloway's comments of 26 Dec. 1849, and the Inspector General of Fortifications' minute, 31 Dec. 1849; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, p. 85, Commanding Royal Engineer, Canada, to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 17 Sept. 1849; ibid., Vol. 49, p. 118, Gordon to Lacy, 18 Feb. 1851; ibid., Vol. 49, p. 112, minute of the Master General of the Ordnance, 12 March 1851; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 886, p. 19, Butler to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 27 Feb. 1852; PAC, MG12, WO44, Vol. 49, Commanding Royal Engineer, Canada, to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 9 Jan. 1852.

72 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1610, pp. 283-7, District Commanding Engineer, Canada West, to the Commanding Royal Engineer, Canada, 2 June 1860.

73 Ibid., PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1408, p. 326, Servante to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 28 June 1860; ibid., Vol. 1612, p. 150, Report on the proposed new armament for Kingston, 17 May 1862; ibid., Vol. 1610, pp. 336-8, Commanding Royal Engineer, Canada, to Whittingham, 14 Aug. 1860; ibid., Vol. 1553, p. 244, Jervois to The Commanding Royal Engineer, Montreal, 25 July 1860; ibid., Vol. 1611, p. 71, Whittingham to Servante, 22 June 1861; ibid., Vol. 1612, p. 150. Total preparation amounted only to placing one 24-pounder gun on each of the Branch Ditch Towers and a similar piece on the Murney Tower.

74 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1612, p. 162, Kingston Inspectional Report, Nov., 1862.

75 Ibid., Vol. 1635, Inspectional Report, Canada West, 7 Nov. 1862.

76 Ibid., Vol. 1635, Inspectional Reports, Kingston, Canada West, Feb. 1863, and 30 Sept. 1866.

77 Ibid., Vol. 1635, Inspectional Reports, Kingston, Canada West, 1865-69; PAC, Kingston, plan of proposed Murney Tower snow roof, 6 May 1867.

78 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 887, p. 314, Colonel Ord's report on the Defence of Canada, 15 Nov. 1855.

79 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1671, p. 486, Memorandum on the naval assistance available to Canada in an American war, Captain Noble, 29 Nov. 1861.

80 Ibid., Vol. 1612, p. 162, Noble to the Commanding Royal Engineer, Canada, 1 Nov. 1862.

81 Ibid., Vol. 1585, p. 20-1; Jervois, Report on the Defence of Canada, pp. 20-1.


Decline and Obsolescence: 1846-71

1 John Mackay Hitsman, Safeguarding Canada, 1763-1871 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968), p. 150, quoting, British Parliamentary Papers, 1849, ix, No. 499, lvi-lvii

2 J. M. Hitsman, op. cit., pp. 152-6.

3 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1281, p. 21, Rowan to Gray, 22 June 1849; ibid., Vol. 1635, Inspectional report, Kingston Canada West, 30 Sept. 1854; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 886, p. 658, Dixon to Burgoyne, 2 Aug. 1853.

4 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1635, Inspectional reports, Kingston, Canada West, 30 Sept. 1854, and 19 Sept. 1859.

5 Ibid., Vol. 1610, pp. 454-7, Whittingham to Servante, 3 April 1861.

6 Ibid., Vol. 1635, Inspectional reports, Kingston, Canada West, 1852-69.

7 Ibid., Vol. 1610, p. 304, Whittingham to Servante, 23 June 1860; PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 885, p. 327, report on school accommodation, 14 Sept. 1850.

8 Ibid., Vol. 886, p. 658, Dixon to Burgoyne, 2 Aug. 1853; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1610, p. 304, Whittingham to Servante, 22 June 1860; ibid., Vol. 1618, p. 100, Memorandum on the proposed re-allocation of Kingston barrack accommodation.

9 Ibid., Vol. 1618, p. 164, return of barrack occupancy, Kingston, 1 Nov. 1869.

10 W. S. Lavell, op. cit., p. 174.

11 PAC, ground plans of British military property surrendered to the Canadian government, Kingston, Canada, 1870.

12 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1302, p. 23, Talbot to the General Commanding, Canada, 12 Feb. 1846; ibid., Vol. 1302, p. 31, Talbot to the Deputy Adjutant General, 27 Feb. 1846; ibid., Vol. 1608, p. 81, Wulff to Dixon, 6 July 1853; ibid., Vol. 1608, p. 82, Dixon to Wulff, 7 July 1853, and marginal note, 12 July 1853.

13 Ibid., Vol. 1635, Inspectional reports, Quebec, 1862-69.

14 Ibid., Vol. 1635, Inspectional report, Quebec, 30 Sept. 1857, 14 Nov. 1862.

15 Ibid., Vol. 1578, p. 240, Quebec barrack repair estimate, 10 Sept. 1860; PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 34, pp. 76-7, Harris to Jervois, report on Canada barrack accommodation, 8 April 1864.

16 Ibid.

17 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1635, Inspectional Report, Quebec, 22 Nov. 1867.

18 Ibid., Vol. 1652, p. 49, Gosset to Nelson, 17 Feb. 1860.

19 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 882, p. 507, Ormsby to Calder, 27 May 1848; PANS, RE12, p. 40, Nova Scotia out-station report, 10 Jan. 1849; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1691, pp. 83-5, Specifications for the pointing of Carleton Tower, 9 June 1857; ibid., Vol. 1652. p. 35, App to Gosset, 29 May 1859.

20 Ibid., Vol. 1675, pp. 302-4, John Grey to Resident Engineer Officer, St. John, 12 July 1862; ibid., Vol. 1811, p. 358, Westmacott to the Acting Military Secretary to the Governor-General, 18 June 1866.

21 John Mackay Hitsman, Safeguarding Canada, 1763-1871 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968), pp. 202-4.

22 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1811, pp. 137-48, Cox to Westmacott, 7 March 1866.

23 Ibid., Vol. 1811, pp. 137-48, Cox to Cole, 14 March 1866; ibid., Vol. 1811, p. 184, Schedule of works executed at St. John, March to May 1866; Hitsman, op. cit., p. 202; Judith Tulloch, "The Carleton Martello Tower," Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1969, pp. 18-9.

24 PANS, RE23, pp. 203-14, Jervois to Commanding Royal Engineer, Nova Scotia, 20 Feb. 1857, enclosing his summary and comments, 29 July 1856, on the Halifax defence committee report of 1856; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1430, p. 234, Westmacott, report on the defence of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1 Jan. 1862; Jervois, Report on the Defence of Canada.

25 Ibid.

26 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1829, Stotherd to Bell, 5 Aug. 1856.

27 Ibid., Vol. 1430, p. 26, Warren to Benn, 17 May 1859; ibid., Vol. 429, Halifax Inspectional Report, 1 Aug. 1857; ibid., Vol. 1653A, Halifax repair estimate, 1859-60, item 17; ibid., Vol. 1436, p. 12, Nelson to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 28 Oct. 1860.

28 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1445, Halifax repair estimate, 1859-60; ibid., Vol. 1430, p. 26, Warren to Benn, 17 May 1859; ibid., Vol. 1445, pp. 150-6, 202-15, report and estimate for the partial conversion of the Prince of Wales Tower to a magazine, 7 Feb. 1860; ibid., Vol. 1650, p. 162, Commander of the Forces to Colonel Nelson, 25 Jan. 1860.

29 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1436, p. 144, Nelson to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 27 June 1861; ibid., Vol. 1649, p. 22, Foster to the Commanding Engineer, Halifax. 31 July 1861.

30 Ibid., Vol. 1650, p. 411, Commander, Royal Artillery to Commanding Royal Engineer, 9 Sept. 1861; ibid., Vol. 1436, p. 238, Westmacott to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 30 April 1862.

31 Ibid., Vol. 1445, pp. 150-6, 202-15, report and estimate for the partial conversion of the Prince of Wales Tower to a magazine, 7 Feb. 1860; ibid., Vol. 1649, p. 363, Jervois to the commanding Royal Engineer, 4 Sept. 1863; ibid., Vol. 1436, p. 279, Westmacott to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 24 Dec. 1862; ibid., Vol. 1436, p. 238, Westmacott to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 30 April 1862; PAC, Prince of Wales Tower, partial conversion plan, 1862.

32 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1436, p. 228, Commanding Royal Engineer to Inspector General of Fortifications, 17 April 1862; ibid., Vol. 1653A, 1864-5 annual estimate, Halifax; ibid., Vol. 1651, p. 268, Westmacott to the Assistant Quartermaster General, 1 Aug. 1864; ibid., Vol. 1767, p. 107, Ordnance officers, Halifax, to the Adjutant General's office, 10 Feb. 1881.

33 Ibid., Vol. 1767, p. 107, Ordnance officers, Halifax to the Adjutant General's Office, 10 Feb. 1881; PAC, Prince of Wales Tower plan, 1881.

34 PAC, plan, proposed arrangement for converting the Prince of Wales Tower for position finders, 10 Sept. 1891.

35 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1653A, Halifax repair estimates, 1859-70, ibid., Vol. 1430, p. 67, report on fortifications, 1 July 1859; ibid., Vol. 1445, Nova Scotia repair estimate, 1856-7; ibid., Vol. 1429, monthly return of the Halifax fortifications, 1 Dec. 1857; PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 32, pp. 35-40; Jervois, Report on the Defence of Canada; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1830, p. 66, Sketch of Halifax harbour, 26 Nov. 1875; PAC, plan of York Redoubt, 8 Dec. 1874.

36 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 886, p. 919, Butler to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 12 Oct. 1853; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1430, p. 234, Westmacott, report on the defences of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1 Jan. 1862; PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol 32; Jervois, Report on the Defence of Canada; National Historic Parks and Sites Branch files, site plan of York Redoubt, 8 Dec. 1874; PANS, plan of York Redoubt, 8 April 1869.

37 George C. Ingram, "York Redoubt, Halifax, N.S., a Structural History," Manuscript on file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1965, p. 51.

38 PANS, RE23, p. 146, Stotherd to Fraser, 31 May 1855; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1429, Halifax inspectional report, 1 Sept. 1857, 1 June 1858; ibid., Vol. 1430, p. 234, Westmacott, report on the defences of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1 Jan. 1862; Harry Piers, op. cit., pp. 51-3.

39 H. Piers, op. cit., pp. 51-3; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1653A, report on Halifax fortification repair estimates for 1865-6; PANS, Fort Clarence record plan, 1879; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1830, p. 66, Sketch of Halifax harbour, 26 Nov. 1875.

40 H. Piers. op. cit., p. 59, note 7.

41 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 886, p. 919, Butler to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 12 Oct. 1853; PANS, RE23, pp. 204-13, Jervois memorandum on the Halifax defences, 29 July 1856; PANS, RE13, pp. 12-16. Commanding Royal Engineer to Inspector General of Fortifications, 21 Dec. 1854; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1671, p. 531, Inspectional Report on the defences of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 18 Nov. 1861; ibid., Vol. 1430, p. 234, Westmacott, report on the defences of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1 Jan. 1862; ibid., Vol. 1651, p. 469, Francklyn to Westmacott, 30 Nov. 1864, and reply, 2 Dec. 1864; PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 32, pp. 35-40, Jervois, Report on the Defence of Canada; PAC, Georges Island plan, 18 July 1877, and Fort Charlotte plan, 11 Sept. 1869.

42 W. Y. Carmen. op. cit., pp. 52-3.

43 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1585, pp. 20-1, extract from the Jervois Report of 3 Feb. 1865; PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 29, pp. 1-46, Gallway to Commanding Royal Engineer, 27 April 1867.

44 John Burgoyne, Memorandum on the Increased power of Breaching to be obtained by the Use of Rifled Ordnance, Professional Papers of the Royal Engineers, n.s., Vol. 10 (1861), pp. 1-7.

45 W. Y. Carman, op. cit., p. 53; E. R. Lewis, op. cit., p. 50.

46 E. B. Canfield, op. cit., pp. 3-16.

47 United States Government, Navy Department, op. cit., p. 3.

48 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1430, p. 234, Westmacott, report on the defences of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1 Jan. 1862.

49 Ibid., Vol. 1658, p. 268, Westmacott to the Assistant Quartermaster General, 1 Aug. 1864.

50 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 886, p. 919, Butler to the Inspector General of Fortifications, 12 Oct. 1853; PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1431, p. 19, Minute approving a new Halifax harbour defence system, 6 Feb. 1863.

51 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 887, p. 552, LeMarchant to the Secretary of State of War, 2 July 1855; PANS RE23, p. 157, Wood to Burgoyne, 23 Jan. 1856; ibid., pp. 159-69, Burgoyne minute, 29 Dec. 1855; ibid., Jervois to the Commanding Royal Engineer Halifax, 20 Feb. 1857, enclosing Jervois minute of 29 July 1856 on the Halifax defence committee report of 1856, and Burgoyne's minute of 8 Oct. 1856.

52 Jervois, Report on the Defence of Canada, pp. 32-3.

53 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1430, p. 66, Sketch of Halifax harbour, 26 Nov. 1875.

54 Ibid., Vol. 1461, p. 284, Ford to Stotherd, 5 Nov. 1855; ibid., Vol. 1461, p. 275, Halifax defence committee report, 23 April 1855.

55 Ibid., Vol. 1430, pp. 328-30, Westmacott to Doyle, 17 Jan. 1863.

56 Ibid., Vol. 1430, p. 234, Westmacott, report on the defences of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1 Jan. 1862.

57 Ibid., Vol. 1652. p. 154, Jervois to Westmacott, 23 Sept. 1863; ibid., Vol. 1652, p. 216, Millar to Westmacott, 24 Sept. 1863; Jervois, Report on Canadian Defence, pp. 32-3.

58 Jervois, op. cit., p. 26.

59 PAC, MG12, WO55, Vol. 887, Ord to Burgoyne, 9 Feb. 1856; Jervois, op. cit., pp. 19-20; John Mackay Hitsman, Safeguarding Canada, 1763-1871 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968), pp. 182-9.

60 Jervois, op. cit., p. 20.

61 Ibid., pp. 19-20; J. M. Hitsman, op. cit., p. 221.

62 PAC, RG8, Series II, Vol. 29, pp. 1-46, Gallway to the Commanding Royal Engineer, Canada, 27 April 1867; Ford to the Governor General's military secretary, 17 May 1867; Sir J. Michel to the Secretary of State for War, 20 Sept. 1867; Gallway to Ford, 26 Sept. 1867.

63 J. M. Hitsman, op. cit., pp. 183-208.

64 Ibid., pp. 208-22.

65 PAC, RG8, C Series, Vol. 1671, p. 486, Captain Noble, Memorandum on Canadian defence, 29 Nov. 1861; ibid., Vol. 696, p. 108, Collison, report on Canadian naval defences, Sept. 1861; ibid., Vol. 1612, p. 162, Inspectional Report, 1 Nov. 1862; ibid., Vol. 1611, p. 210, Whittingham to Servante, 22 June 1861; ibid., Vol. 1610, Whittingham to the District commanding Engineer, Canada West, 29 Sept. 1860.

66 Jervois, Report on Canadian Defences, p. 9.

67 Ibid., p. 20.

68 Ibid., p. 21.

69 Ibid., pp. 21, 26.



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