Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 15
A History of Martello Towers in the Defence of British North America, 1796-1871
by Ivan J. Saunders
Adam, Graeme Mercer
Illustrated Quebec, 1535-1608, 1763-1893 (The Gibraltar and
Tourists' Mecca of America) Under French and English Occupancy, the
Story of its Famous Annals, with Pen Picture Descriptive of the
Matchless Beauty and Quaint Mediaeval Characteristics of the Canadian
Gibralter. McConiff, Montreal, 1891.
Alden, Carroll Storrs, and Allan Westcott
The United States Navy; A History, Robert Hole, London,
Archibald, Edward H. H.
The Wooden Fighting Ship in the Royal Navy, A.D. 897-1860.
Arco Publishing, New York, 1971
Britain and Her Army; 1509-1970; A Military, Political and Social
Survey. Allen Lane, London, 1970.
Britain and the Balance of Power in British North America,
1815-1908. University of California Press, Berkley, 1967.
Burgoyne, Sir John
"A Memorandum on the Increased Power to be Obtained by the Use of
Rifled Ordnance." Professional Papers of the Royal Engineers,
n.s., Vol. 10 (1861), pp. 1-7.
Canada. Department of Indian and Northern Affairs. National Historic
Parks and Sites Branch.
Record files, Kingston, HS-8-12, 16, 18, 70; U 325-8-12, 18;
Canada. Public Archives.
Report on Canadian Archives (1884), Ed. Douglas Brymmer,
Queen's Printer, 1885.
Canada. Public Archives. Manuscript Division.
MG11, CO42, Colonial Office Papers, Canada, Correspondence,
1700-1909; CO188, New Brunswick, Correspondence, 1784-1867; CO217, Nova
Scotia and Cape Breton, Correspondence, 1603-1867; CO880, Canadian
MG12, WO1, War Office Papers, Secretary at War, In-letters,
1755-1855; WO33, Reports and Miscellaneous Papers, 1862-85; WO44,
Ordnance Office, In-letters, 1812-55; WO55, Ordnance Miscellaneous,
1740-1863; WO80, Murray Papers, Miscellaneous, 1804-54
RG8, C Series, British Military and Naval Records. Some 250 volumes
of this extensive series were examined. Among the most useful are
1631/2, 285-6, 369, 398, 696-7, 862, 1208, 1218, 1221, 1264A, 1280-1,
1300-2, 1336-7, 1407-8, 1409A, 1427-32, 1436, 1438, 1445, 1458, 1461,
1468, 1529, 1553, 1564, 1569, 1578-9, 1580-5, 1591A, 1610-2, 1618, 1625,
1635, 1649-54, 1671, 1675, 1691, 1705-7, 1710, 1761, 1767, 1771, 1773,
1811-12, 1816-8, 1825, 1827, 1829-31.
RG8, Series II, Ordnance Records, Canada, 1804-70. Among the most
useful volumes are 6-9, 11, 13-4, 18, 20, 29, 32, 34, 80-1, 86, 95
Canada. Public Archives. Map Division.
Maps and plans, Halifax, New Brunswick, Quebec City, Kingston.
Canfield, Eugene B.
Civil War Naval Ordnance. U.S.G.P.O., Washington, D.C.,
Carman, William Young
A History of Firearms; From the Earliest Times to 1914.
Routledge and Paul, London, 1955.
Chapelle, Howard Irving
The History of the American Sailing Navy; The Ships and Their
Development. Norton, New York, 1949.
Chown, John D.
The 9-pdr. Muzzle Loading Rifle. Museum Restoration Service,
Congreve, Sir William
An Elementary Treatise on the Mounting of Naval Ordnance.
Museum Restoration Service, Ottawa, 1970. (Originally published London,
Connally, Thomas William John
The History of the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners. Longman,
Brown, Green and Longman, London, 1855, 2 vols.
Cruikshank, Ernest Alexander
Inventory of Military Documents in the Canadian Archives.
King's Printer, Ottawa, 1910.
Dendy, John Oliver
"The Strategic Importance of Kingston: A Study of the Role Played by
the British Base at Kingston, Ontario, in the Defence of Canada,
1778-1854." Unpubl. M.A. thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, 1965.
Denison, George Taylor
Soldiering in Canada; Recollections and Experiences. G. N.
Morang, Toronto, 1900.
De Wattevile, Herman Gaston
The British Soldier; His Daily Life from Tudor to Modern
Times. J. M. Dent, London, 1954.
Doughty, Sir Arthur George
The Fortress of Quebec, 1608-1903. Dussault & Proulx,
Douglas, Sir Howard
Observations on Modern Systems of Fortification Including That
Proposed by M. Carnot, and a Comparison of the Polygonal with the
Bastion System; to which are added, Some Reflections on Intrenched
Positions, and a Tract on the Naval, Littoral, and Internal Defence of
England. J. Murray, London, 1859.
Duncan, Francis, comp.
History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. Compiled from the
Original Records, J. Murray, London, 1879, 2 vols.
Edwards, R. F., comp. and ed.
Roll of Officers of the Corps of Royal Engineers from 1660 to
1898, Compiled from the Ms Rolls of the late Captain T. W. J. Connolly,
R. E. and brought up to date in the office of the R. E. Institute,
Chatham. Royal Engineers Institute, Chatham, 1898.
Fergusson, Charles Bruce
"The Martello Tower at Halifax." The Dalhousie Review, Vol. 43
(1963), pp. 212-9, Halifax.
Gooding, Sidney James
An Introduction to British Artillery in North America. Museum
Restoration Service, Ottawa, 1965.
Great Britain, Army.
Catalogue of the Museum of Artillery in the Rotunda at
Woolwich. Royal Artillery Institute, London, 1963.
Report of the Committee Appointed to Enquire into the
Construction, Condition, and Cost of the Fortifications. London,
Great Britain. Army. Corps of Royal Engineers.
Aide-Memoire to the Military Sciences, Framed from Contributions
of Officers of the Different Services. J. Weale, London, 1846-52, 6
"Report on the Construction and Utility of Maximillan Towers."
Professional Papers of the Royal Engineers, Vol. 2 (1844),
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons.
Sessional Papers. 1862.
Gunnery in 1858, being a Treatise on Rifles, Cannon and Sporting
Arms, explaining Principles of the Science of Gunnery, and describing
the Newest Improvements in Firearms. Smith, Elder, London, 1858.
Hammond, John Martin
Quaint and Historic Forts of North America. J. B. Lippincott,
Hitsman, John MacKay
The Incredible War of 1812; A Military History. University of
Toronto Press, Toronto, 1965.
Safeguarding Canada, 1763-1871. University of Toronto Press,
"Winter Troop Movement to Canada, 1862." Canadian Historical
Review, Vol. 43 (1962), pp. 127-35, Toronto.
Hughes, Basil Perronet
British Smooth-Bore Artillery; The Muzzle-Loading Artillery of the
18th and 19th Centuries. Arms and Armour Press, London, 1969.
Ingram, George C.
"York Redoubt, Halifax, N.S.: A Structural History." Manuscript on
file, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1965.
The Naval History of Great Britain, From the Declaration of War by
France in 1793, to the Accession of George IV. Rev. ed. R. Bentley,
London, 1837, 6 vols, Vol. 1.
Jervois, William Francis Drummond
Report on the Defence of Canada, and the British Naval Stations in
the North Atlantic; Together with Observations on the Defence of New
Brunswick. Queen's Printer, London, 1864.
Lavell, W. S.
"The History of the Present Fortifications of Kingston." Ontario
History, Vol. 31 (1936) Toronto.
"Report on the Application of Forts, Towers, and Batteries to Coast
Defences and Harbours." Professional Papers of the Royal
Engineers, Vol. 7 (1844), Chatham.
Lewis, Emmanuel Raymond
Seacoast Fortifications of the United States; An Introductory
History. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. D.C., 1970.
Lewis, James Frederick
Permanent Fortification for English Engineers. The Royal
Engineers Institute, Chatham, 1890.
Dominion Artillery Association, Prize Essay, For the Medal pres.
by his Excellency the Right Hon. Earl of Dufferin . . . On the Supply,
Care and Repair of Artillery Material. Gunnery School Press, Quebec,
"Report on Nova Scotia, 1784." Report on Canadian Archives,
Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1885.
Morton, Desmond Paul
Ministers and Generals; Politics and the Canadian Militia;
1868-1904. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1970.
"The Prince of Wales Tower, Halifax, N.S." Manuscript on file,
National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa.
Noble, Sir Andrew
Artillery and Explosives; Essays and Lectures Written and
Delivered at Various Times. J. Murray, London, 1906.
Note on Martello Towers
In "Editorial," Antiquity, Vol. 43, No. 172 (1969), p.
Nova Scotia. Public Archives.
Headquarters Papers, 1783-1903
Maps and Plans. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
Royal Engineers Papers. RE B and RE3-53
O'Neil, Bryan Hugh St. John
Castles and Cannon; A Study of Early Artillery Fortifications in
England. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1960.
Pasley, C. W.
A Course in Elementary Fortification. London, 1822.
Percival, Walter Pilling
The Lure of Quebec. Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1941.
The Evolution of the Halifax Fortress; 1749-1928. Rev. ed.
Public Archives of Nova Scotia, Halifax, 1947.
Preston, Richard Arthur
Canada's RMC; A History of the Royal Military College.
University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1969.
Raddall, Thomas Head
Halifax; Warden of the North, 2d. ed. McClelland and Stewart,
Reeves, Jesse Siddell
American Diplomacy Under Tyler and Polk. Johns Hopkins Press,
Ridley, Jasper Godwin
Lord Palmerston. Constable, London, 1970.
Rose, John Holland, and Alexander Meyrick Broadley
Dumouriez and the Defence of England. J. Lane, London, 1908.
Roy, James Alexander
Kingston; the King's Town. McClelland and Stewart, Toronto.
Sheppard, Eric William
A Short History of the British Army. 4th ed. Constable,
Stacey, Charles Perry
"British Military Policy in Canada in the Era of Federation,"
Canadian Historical Association, Annual Report, 1934, pp. 20-9.
Canada and the British Army, 1846-1871; A Study in the Practice of
Responsible Government. Longmans, Green, London. 1936.
"The Fenian Troubles and Canadian Military Development, 1865-1871."
Canadian Historical Association, Annual Report, 1935, pp. 26-35,
Stanley, George Francis Gilman
Canada's Soldiers; The Military History of an Unmilitary
People. Rev. ed. Macmillan. Toronto, 1960.
"Historic Kingston and its Defences." Ontario History, Vol. 46
(1954), pp. 21-35. Toronto.
Victorian Voices; An Introduction to the Papers of Sir John Le
Couteur, Q.A.D.C., F.R.S. La Societe Jersiaise, St. Helier,
Stokes, Peter J.
"Martello Tower, Lancaster, N.B." Manuscript on file, National
Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1963.
Introductory Essay to the Study of Fortification for Young
Officers of the Army. William Allen, London, 1857.
Martello Towers. David & Charles, Newton Abbot, Devon,
Rifled Ordnance; A Practical Treatise on the Application of the
Principle of the Rifle to Guns and Mortars of Every Calibre, To which is
added a New Theory of the Initial Action and Force of Fired
Gunpowder. J. Weale, London, 1859.
"The Carleton Martello Tower." Manuscript on file, National Historic
Parks and Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1969.
United States. Defense Department.
Monitors of the United States Navy: 1861-1937. U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969.
Waite, P. B.
"Edward Cardwell and Confederation." Canadian Historical
Review, Vol. 43 (1962), pp. 17-41, Toronto.
Ward, S. P. G.
"Defence Works in Britain, 1803-1805." Journal of the Society for
Army Historical Research, Vol. 27 (1947).
Winter, Fritz G. M.
Old Forts in Upper Canada. Bulletin No. 146, School of
Engineering and Architectural Research, University of Toronto.
University of Toronto Press, 1935.