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Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 14

The British Indian Department and the Frontier in North America, 1755-1830

by Robert S. Allen

Appendix D. Indian Leaders and Notables of the British Indian Department, 1755-1830.

Hendrick or Tiyanaga (1680-1755)

1680 — Born near Canajoharie, Mohawk valley, New York. Elected a sachem of the Mohawk when quite young.

1718 — Visited England.

1740s — Through efforts of Sir William Johnson, became active in holding the Iroquois to the interests of the British. Uncle of Caroline, first of Johnson's Indian housekeepers. A bold warrior, but also an outstanding orator and leader of his people. Struggled to preserve traditional Iroquois culture and lands from white incursion.

1745 — Aided Sir William Johnson in organizing a Mohawk force for the campaign against the French under Baron Dieskau.

1755 — In vanguard of Johnson's provincial army, was ambushed and bayoneted after falling off his horse and being unable to rise. Died 8 September, battle of Lake George.

Pontiac or Ponteach (about 1720-1769)

1720— Born about 1720 in an Ottawa village on Maumee River at mouth of Auglaize River, Ohio.

1755 — Ally of the French; participated in Braddock's defeat near Fort Duquesne.

1756 — Commanded 1,000 Algonkian Indians at Oswego.

1761 — At Detroit council; ignored by Sir William Johnson. His hatred of the English, loyalty to the French and genuine interest in preserving the culture and land of his people resulted in his leadership of a loosely formed confederacy composed of the Ottawa, Ojibway and Potawatomi. Other tribes joined, particularly after the defeat of the French and establishment of the British in the frontier posts.

1763 — 7 May to 15 November, besieged British at Detroit; defeated British at Bloody Bridge. His action encouraged other Indians who massacred garrisons at Sandusky, Venango, Le Boeuf, Presque Isle, Miami, St. Joseph, Ouiatenon and Michilimackinac. Indians also defeated Lieutenant Cuyler and British relief column for Detroit, near Point Pelee; other warriors besieged Fort Pitt until defeated at Bushy Run; Seneca destroyed supply column at Devil's Hole near Niagara Falls. Pontiac the inspiration but not the organizer or general leader of these several Indian victories.

1766 — Although "Pontiac's War" (a misnomer) was terminated within one year, the Ottawa chief did not formally surrender to Sir William Johnson until 23 July at the Oswego council.

1769 — After a drinking session, was murdered by an unknown Indian with a tomahawk blow to the back of the head at Cahokia near British post, Fort Chartres, on Mississippi River.

Mary or Molly Brant (1736-1796)

1736 — Born in Mohawk valley, New York. Iroquois upbringing; sister of Joseph Brant.

1753 — Followed Caroline as Sir William Johnson's housekeeper. Presided as the "brown Lady Johnson" at Fort Johnson, then Johnson Hall for 21 years. Had eight recorded children by Johnson: Peter, George, Elizabeth, Magdalene, Margaret, Mary, Suzanne and Anne; all six girls married white men.

1777 — With outbreak of American Revolution, fled with other Loyalists to Niagara. Most active throughout the war in keeping Six Nation Iroquois attached to the British cause.

1784 — Settled at Cataraqui (Kingston, Upper Canada).

1796— Died 16 April, Kingston, Upper Canada.

Joseph Brant or Thayendanegea (1742-1807)

1742 — Born in Canajoharie, Mohawk valley, New York; but some accounts say along banks of Ohio River. Mother a Mohawk, father uncertain, though unfounded speculation it was Sir William Johnson.

1755 — Present and under care of Sir William Johnson at battle of Lake George. Educated at Moor's Protestant Charity School at Lebanon, Connecticut; graduated 1763.

1765 — Married an Oneida woman and settled in Mohawk valley. Acted as interpreter and aided missionaries in teaching Christianity to Indians.

1773 — Married half-sister of his first wife who had died.

1774 — Became secretary to Guy Johnson in the British Indian Department.

1776 — Visited England. Most active in cause of British crown during American Revolution. Served as captain and later colonel, and fought in close alliance with Loyalist corps of Butler's Rangers. At Wyoming Valley, German Flats and Cherry Valley (1778); Sullivan's campaign (1779), and along Ohio against Clank (1781).

1780 — Married Catharine, a Mohawk girl, at Niagara, possibly a daughter of George Croghan.

1784 — Led Mohawk to Grand River lands in Upper Canada (Haldimand Grant). Given power of attorney by Iroquois to surrender, sell and collect payment for Grand River lands, and to form a fund and provide an annuity when game and traditional life-style vanished; accused of fraudulent use of attorney trust (1797). Sold three-fifths of total land to whites, much of it to Americans at immense personal profit.

1793 — At Sandusky conference, Brant's long attempts to form a united Indian confederacy in opposition to American westward expansion failed here; his gamble to achieve a compromise boundary which would satisfy the Algonkian, Iroquois and Americans proved unsuccessful.

1795 — killed drunken son Isaac in self-defence; completely cleared. Translated prayer book of Church of England into Iroquois. Settled quietly in a magnificent two-storey house at Burlington Bay, Upper Canada. Extremely wealthy in later years; owned seven to eight slaves and a four-horse carriage.

1807 — Died 24 November, Burlington, Upper Canada.

Little Turtle or Michikinikwa (1752-1812)

1752 — Born in a Miami village on Eel River, about 20 miles from present Fort Wayne, Indiana.

1775-83 — Fought with British during American Revolution. Became an influential leaden of the Algonkian confederacy in their struggle to preserve the Ohio valley from American encroachment.

1790 — Led Indians at Harmar's defeat.

1791 — Commanded tribes at St. Clair's defeat, thus assuring his military reputation.

1794 — Did not command at Fallen Timbers; had lost his leadership in council to the more belligerent Shawnee such as Captain Johnny and Blue Jacket. Although he led the attack against Fort Recovery in June, was opposed to fighting Wayne in August.

1795 — One of first chiefs to sign the Treaty of Greenville, 3 August. Capitulated to the white world; acquired white customs and disease. Worked to obtain Indian support for further land cessions. Prestige among his people dropped sharply, but he managed to keep Miami from supporting the British in War of 1812.

1812 — Died 14 July at Fort Wayne, Indiana.

The Prophet or Laulewasika or Tenskwatawa (1768-1837)

1768 — Born about 1768 near Chillicothe, now Oldtown, Ohio. Twin, brother or half-brother of Tecumseh.

1805 — Announced that he was a prophet and possessed mystical powers; clearly was largely influenced by the Shakers and their unusual religious practices such as the "finger tip" dance in which they shook sin out of their bodies. Preached for a return to traditional Indian values and urged the renunciation of sin and white customs; anti-white doctrine an early example of the "Red Power" movement.

1811 — 7 November, blundered into defeat by Harrison at Tippecanoe. Influence lost after battle; did not participate in the War of 1812. Received a pension, a courtesy from the British government; lived in Canada until 1826.

1837 — Died November, Wyandotte County, Kansas.

Tecumseh or Tecumtha (1768-1813)

1768 — Born in the Shawnee village of Piqua on the Mad River near present Springfield, Ohio.

1774— Father killed during Dunmore's War in Kentucky.

1780 — Piqua destroyed by Kentucky militia during American Revolution.

1789 — Elder brother killed in a raid against a Tennessee back settlement.

1794 — At battle of Fallen Timbers, 20 August.

1811 — Not present at battle of Tippecanoe, 7 November; had travelled south to attempt to induce Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw and Creek to join his united Indian confederacy. Like Pontiac and Joseph Brant, worked to form an alliance of all the tribes in opposition to the territorial ambitions of Americans.

1812 — Joined British and made a brigadier general during the War of 1812. Provided invaluable service to the British cause, particularly in the first few months of the conflict. Completely disrupted Hull's supply lines and won a decisive victory at Brownstown, 5 August; at capture of Detroit, 16 August.

1813 — Won a crushing victory against Kentucky militia during the siege of Fort Meigs, 5 May. At Fort Stephenson, 1 August. The British retreated from Amherstburg, 27 September, and Tecumseh's dream of preserving traditional Indian values and land and a united confederacy was irretrievably lost. Killed 5 October at the battle of the Thames near Moravian Town, Upper Canada, fighting against the hereditary foe and loyally covering the retreat of the British, who had abandoned his people to the mercy of American expansion three times in a generation.

Black Hawk or Ma-Ka-Tai-Me-She Kia-Kiak (1767-1838)

1767 — Born at great Sauk village on Rock River in present state of Illinois. Traded with Spaniards at St. Louis untill 1804 when Americans took control.

1804 — Harrison Treaty, forcing Sauk and Fox to cede all their lands east of the Mississippi, never accepted as valid by Black Hawk who was not present at signing. As a result of American westward expansion and pressure tactics on the tribes, Black Hawk developed a hearty dislike for the United States.

1812 — Joined the British at outbreak of the War of 1812; worked in close harmony with Robert Dickson.

1813 — At battles of Frenchtown, Fort Meigs and Fort Stephenson. Following death of Tecumseh, Black Hawk became the most influential Indian ally of the British, and Dickson appointed him head chief of the Northwest tribes.

1814 — Won victories over Campbell and Taylor at the battles of Rock Island Rapids, 21 July and 5 September.

1815 — 24 May, Bulger and the British burned Fort McKay and left the Northwest, Black Hawk and the Indians of the region forever; the farewell scene was admirably recreated in a painting by Peter Rindisbacher.

1816 — Reluctantly signed a treaty of peace between the Sauk and the United States, thus adhering to the old 1804 treaty.

1816-29 — Visited the British at Fort Malden annually to receive presents and exchange good wishes.

1832 — Fought a futile war against the Americans in an effort to retain some of the Sauk lands east of the Mississippi (Black Hawk War).

1838 — Died 3 October at Sauk village on Des Moines River, Iowa, west of the Mississippi. His grave violated and all private possessions stolen.

Sir William Johnson (1715-1774)

1715 — Born in Smithtown, County Meath, Ireland. Adopted by his uncle, Admiral Sir Peter Warren.

1738 — To Mohawk valley estates of his uncle in New York; inherited property in 1752.

1739 — Took Catherine (Catty) Weissenberg, an indentured German girl, as his housekeeper; three children by her: Anne (b. 1740), John (b. 1742) and Mary (b. 1744).

1745 — Married Catherine on her deathbed.

1746 — Became "Colonel of the Six Nations;" influence and prestige among the Iroquois, particularly the Mohawk, supreme and of invaluable assistance to the British in their struggles with the French and Algonkian Indians.

1747 — Took Caroline, niece of the Mohawk sachem Henrick, as his housekeeper; three children by her; William of Canajoharie, Charlotte and Caroline.

1753 — Following death of Caroline, took Mary (Molly) Brant, another Iroquois girl, as his housekeeper; by her he had eight recorded children (see Mary Brant above).

1755 — Appointed superintendent of Indian affairs, Northern Department; became "Father of the British Indian Department." Won victory at battle of Lake George, 8 September; awarded a baronetcy.

1756 — Appointed George Croghan as his deputy agent for Indian affairs at Fort Pitt.

1759 — Following death of John Prideaux, commanded British and Indians at siege of Fort Niagara and forced surrender of Pouchet after winning crushing victory at battle of La Belle Famille, 25 July.

1762 — Appointed son-in-law Daniel Claus as deputy west of Ottawa River, headquarters at Detroit, and nephew and son-in-law Guy Johnson as deputy east of Ottawa River, headquarters at Oswego.

1763 — Made serious error in Indian diplomacy at Detroit council by ignoring Pontiac.

1764 — Instrumental in arranging truce with hostile tribes in July at Niagara council; finally concluded at Oswego council with surrender of Pontiac, 1766. Drafted "Observations" for "Future Management of Indian Affairs in America" which proved unworkable, mainly because of lack of taxable funds.

1766 — Appointed Thomas Polk as deputy for southern tribes and Joseph Gorham as deputy for Nova Scotia.

1768 — Key figure at Fort Stanwix Treaty cession which guaranteed the Ohio River as the eternal boundary between Indian and white. Lived his last years in great comfort and wealth at Johnson Hall on his Mohawk valley estates. Constant Indian visitors were always treated with kindness and good grace.

1774 — Died 11 July, Johnson Hall, Mohawk valley, New York; a loyal servant of the king.

John Stuart (1700-1779)

1700 — Born in Scotland,

1748 — Migrated to South Carolina.

1755 — Appointed Superintendent of Indian affairs, Southern Department. Active in negotiating treaties with the Creek and Cherokee in the Floridas and Carolinas in the 1760s.

1775 — Ordered arrested by the South Carolina assembly for attempting to incite Cherokee to the British interest. Campaigned throughout American Revolution in the Floridas, organizing the Seminole and Cherokee and cooperating with the British war effort in the south.

1779 — Died 25 March, Pensacola, Florida.

George Croghan (about 1715-1782)

1715 — Born about 1715 in Dublin, Ireland.

1741 — Came to America. Became influential Indian trader, agent and land speculator; established a home in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Spoke several Indian dialects and imitated in many ways the manners and customs of an Indian of the Eastern Woodlands.

1752 — Ohio trading interests ruined at Pickawillany.

1756-59 — Appointed a deputy superintendent in the British Indian Department. Campaigned against the French in Ohio.

1764 — To England to lobby for inland colonies and a strong independent Indian Department.

1768 — Played important role at Treaty of Fort Stanwix.

1772 — Resigned from the Indian Department and turned to land speculation. His journal (1745-75) constitutes one of the best sources for an understanding and appreciation of the history of the pro-Revolution American frontier.

1782 — Died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in poverty.

Daniel Claus (1727-1787)

1727 — Born in Benningham in the German States.

1748 — To America; spent first years in Mohawk valley, New York.

1755 — Became interpreter in British Indian Department under Sir William Johnson. Fought against French at Lake George (1755) and Niagara (1759).

1762 — married Anne, oldest daughter of Sir William Johnson. Appointed deputy superintendent of Indian affairs for Canada; active throughout 1760s in the management of Indian affairs.

1776 — New York property confiscated by rebels; to England; returned to command Canadian Indians during American Revolution. Argued throughout the war with Carleton, John Butler and Joseph Brant over the improper employment of the Indians.

1781 — Wrote A Primer for the Use of the Mohawk Children.

1783 — To England in an effort to obtain compensation for property losses in New York during the American Revolution.

1787 — Died in Cardiff, Wales.

Joseph Chew (about 1720-1798)

1720 — Born about 1720 in Virginia.

1774 — Appointed a secretary in the British Indian Department.

1776 — Visited England with Joseph Brant, Daniel Claus and Guy Johnson. Served as secretary throughout American Revolution and struggle for the Ohio valley.

1798 — Retired after 24 years' service. Died in Montreal, Lower Canada. His sons were John Chew, who succeeded his father as secretary of the Indian Department, 1798-1806, and William Johnson Chew, who was appointed storekeeper at Niagara for the Indian Department in 1794, and was later at Fort George, Upper Canada.

Guy Johnson (about 1730-1788)

1730 — Born about 1730 in Ireland. To America; entered Indian Department under the guidance of his uncle, Sir William Johnson. Active against French, 1756-60.

1762 — Married his cousin Mary, second daughter of Sir William Johnson; appointed deputy superintendent of Indian affairs for the Six Nations.

1774-82 — Following death of Sir William Johnson, appointed superintendent general of Indian affairs; to England, 1776; contributed to ensuring continued loyalty of the Iroquois to the British during the American Revolution. His position in the Indian Department, however did not enhance his reputation. Did not return to America until 1779-81.

1782 — Suspended from the British Indian Department and became accountable for £75,272 when various officials in the department complained that they had not received full supply orders or pay over the last few years.

1783 — Returned to England; charges of misappropriation remained unresolved.

1788 — Died 5 March, Haymarket, London, England.

John Butler (1725-1796)

1725 — Born in New Haven, Conn.

1742 — Migrated to Mohawk valley, New York.

1755 — At battle of Lake George. Served in the Indian Department under Sir William Johnson against the French.

1759 — Commanded the Iroquois at the battle of La Belle Famille, 25 July.

1776-77 — Assistant Indian superintendent at Niagara; became loyal supporter of the king during the American Revolution.

1777 — At Oriskany. Organized Loyalist corps of Butler's Rangers, with rank of major; later promoted to lieutenant colonel (1780). The military record of this unit during the American Revolution was unsurpassed. By the end of the war the Rangers and their Indian allies were masters of the Ohio valley and the Northwest. This large area which they successfully defended was lost at the negotiation tables in 1782-83.

1783 — Appointed commissioner of Indian affairs at Niagara.

1784 — Rangers and other Loyalists established the village of Butlersburg on the west bank of the Niagara River.

1792-96 — Appointed and served as Indian superintendent to the Six Nations at Newark (formerly Butlersburg), Upper Canada. Died 14 May 1796 at Newark.

Sir John Johnson (1742-1830)

1742 — Born 5 November, Mohawk valley, New York; eldest son of Sir William Johnson and heir to his estates. Early life spent quietly in upper New York. Tutored by his father in Indian diplomacy through 1760s.

1773 — Married Mary Watts of New York City.

1774 — Fled to Canada with outbreak of American Revolution; New York properties confiscated. Organized a Loyalist unit—the King's Royal Regiment of New York (Johnson's Greens)—and participated in forays against the Americans on the upper New York frontier.

1782-1828 — Served as superintendent general of Indian affairs; spent most of these years in England or at home in Montreal. The affairs of the Indian Department for the most part were delegated to the deputy superintendent and regional superintendents.

1787 — Appointed to the legislative council of Quebec.

1796 — Appointed to the legislative council of Lower Canada.

1830 — Died 4 January, Mount Johnson, near Montreal, Lower Canada.

Alexander McKee (1720-1799)

1720 — Born in Ireland.

1740 — About 1740, to Pennsylvania; engaged in farming and the fur trade.

1772 — Succeeded George Croghan and appointed deputy agent at Fort Pitt in Indian Department. Learned Indian languages and adopted many of their habits; named "White Elk" by Shawnee; married Indian woman (1769); acquired property near Pittsburgh.

1778 — Fled Pittsburgh with Matthew Elliott and Simon Girty; loyal to British during American Revolution; lost about £10,000 in property confiscations during the war; reached Detroit safely and appointed captain in the Indian Department; fought in the service of the king with the Indians against the Americans throughout the Revolution.

1783-94 — Acted as agent in the British Indian Department and worked closely with the tribes who fought to preserve Ohio River boundary.

1789 — Member of Land Board for district of Hesse, upper province of Quebec (later Upper Canada).

1793 — At fateful Sandusky conference.

1794-99 — Served as deputy superintendent of Indian affairs; spent last three years of his life quietly at his home on the Thames River.

1799 — Died 15 January at Thames River home, Upper Canada.

Matthew Elliott (1739-1814)

1739 — Born County Donegal, Ireland.

1761 — Emigrated to Pennsylvania.

1763 — Served in Bouquet expedition against the Indians; throughout 1760s engaged in Indian trade with headquarters in Pittsburgh; married a Wyandot woman, two children, Matthew and Alexander.

1778 — To Detroit with Alexander McKee and Simon Girty; Lieutenant Governor Henry Hamilton thought his loyalty to the king was suspect and sent him to Quebec; returned to Detroit and made a captain in the British Indian Department; most active during American Revolution; led Indians in several engagements but particularly at Vincennes (1779), in the Bird expedition against Kentucky (1780), and at Sandusky (1782), and Blue Licks (1782).

1783 — Led Douglas peace party to Detroit.

1783-94 — Active in council with the Indians throughout the struggle for the Ohio valley.

1784 — Established beautiful home on Detroit River near mouth of Lake Erie; area known locally as Elliott's Point.

1794 — Married Sally Donovan of Detroit, three children — Sarah Anne, Francis Gore and Robert Barclay.

1796 — Appointed superintendent of Indian affairs at Fort Malden (Amherstburg).

1797 — Dismissed for "irregularities;" member of Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada and member of Hesse Land Board.

1808-14 — "Only man capable of calling forth the loyalties of the Indians;" reinstated as superintendent of Indian affairs at Fort Malden.

1812 — Commanded Indians with Tecumseh at surrender of Detroit; supplied and organized tribes in interest of the king throughout the War of 1812.

1813 — Criticized for loose handling of Indians at "Frenchtown Massacre" (January), at Fort Meigs (May), Fort Stephenson (August) and Moravian Town (October); led Indians at capture of Fort Niagara (December).

1814 — Died 7 May, Burlington, Upper Canada.

Simon Girty (1741-1818)

1741 — Born near Sherman's Creek, Perry County, Pennsylvania.

1756 — Captured by Seneca; learned language and customs of the Iroquois; returned to the white world as the "white savage."

1774 — Served as an interpreter in Dunmore's War.

1778 — To Detroit with Elliott and McKee; served throughout American Revolution as an interpreter in the British Indian Department; at torture of Colonel Crawford (1782), and thus scandalized by Hugh H. Brackenridge in Indian Atrocities (1782).

1783 — Married a white captive of the Shawnee named Catherine Mallott who was very young and reported to be of exceptional beauty.

1783-96 — Provided loyal service to the British, and to the Indian Ohio River boundary claim during the struggle for the Ohio valley.

1796 — Moved to a 200-acre farm near Amherstburg, Upper Canada, as a result of Jay's Treaty; lived quietly there for many years.

1812 — Mentally willing but physically incapable of campaigning in the field against the Americans during the War of 1812.

1818 — Died 18 February, Amherstburg, Upper Canada; his fierce reputation and exceptional ability in leading Indians in time of war made him a special target of American historians who unjustly portrayed him as savage and brutal. Brothers; George Girty — little known; James Girty — an interpreter in the British Indian Department; prominent in the 1808 Amherstburg councils.

George Ironside (1760-1830)

1760 — Born in Scotland; earned an M.A. degree from King's College, Aberdeen.

1792 — Was trading with the Indians along the Auglaize River and living with Isabella, niece of the Shawnee Tecumseh; date of arrival in America unknown; appointed agent for the British Indian Department.

1796 — Appointed storekeeper and clerk under Matthew Elliott at Amherstburg; lived at Amherstburg for the rest of his life.

1812 — Employed in the British Indian Department.

1816-20 — Served as clerk in the department at Amherstburg.

1820-30 — Following death of John Askin, Jr., appointed and served as superintendent of Indian affairs at Amherstburg.

1830 — Died Amherstburg, Upper Canada.

William Claus (1765-1826)

1765 — Born upper New York; son of Daniel Claus; grandson of William Johnson; early years spent in understanding the Indians and the wilderness frontier.

1796 — Succeeded John Butler as superintendent to the Six Nations at Fort George (Newark).

1800-26 — Following death of Alexander McKee, served as deputy superintendent of Indian affairs.

1812 —At outbreak of War of 1812 was also lieutenant colonel of the First Regiment of Lincoln Militia; commanded militia of Upper Canada from Newark to Queenston Heights.

1813 — May, last British officer to leave Fort George in face of American advance.

1813-14 — Served with dignity and ability in the British Indian Department throughout the War of 1812; quarreled with John Norton over the provisioning and handling of the Indian allies; survived the dispute.

1826 — Died 11 November at Fort George, Upper Canada.

John Askin, Jr. (1762-1820)

1762 — Born at l'Arbre Croche, an Ottawa village, Great Lakes region; not to be confused with his father John Askin (1739-1815); mother an Ottawa woman.

1807 — Serving as clerk and storekeeper for the British Indian Department at St. Joseph.

1809-10 — Acting superintendent and storekeeper at St. Joseph and involved in the "Askin affair"—charged with pilfering and making a profit from the Indian Department stores; unlike Elliott in 1797, was cleared.

1812 — 17 July, organized and commanded about 300 Ottawa and Ojibway Indians at the capture of Michilimackinac; worked closely with Robert Dickson throughout the War of 1812 organizing and despatching Indian allies to the British at Amherstburg, Detroit and Prairie du Chien.

1814 — Promoted to captain in the British Indian Department.

1816-20 — Appointed and served as superintendent of Indian affairs at Fort Malden (Amherstburg).

1820 — Died at Amherstburg, Upper Canada.

Thomas McKee (about 1770-1815)

1770 — Born about 1770 possibly at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; son of Alexander McKee and an Indian woman.

1796 — Appointed superintendent of Indian affairs at St. Joseph; had served briefly as an officer in the 60th Regiment of Foot (Royal Americans).

1797 — Replaced Matthew Elliott as superintendent of Indian affairs at Fort Malden (Amherstburg).

1799 — Married Therese Askin, eldest daughter of John Askin Sr. of Detroit and Amherstburg.

1808 — Excessive rum drinking and lack of respect or influence with the Indians, plus the Chesapeake crisis of 1807 resulted in removal from his Indian Department post; replaced by Matthew Elliott.

1813 — Left Amherstburg with the retreating army of Procter.

1814 — Spent much of the year as an obnoxious drunk on the Burlington beach in Upper Canada.

1815 — Died in Lower Canada; dissipation and alcohol ruined his career.

John Norton (about 1768 — about 1831)

1768 — Born about 1768 in Scotland.

1788 — Discharged as a private in the 65th Regiment of Foot while serving in Canada.

1789 — To Detroit where employed by John Askin Sr. as an Indian trader along the Miami River.

1792 — Met Joseph Brant and returned with the Mohawk leader to the Grand River lands in Upper Canada.

1796 — Became an interpreter to the Mohawk at Newark and later at Fort George.

1800 — Resigned and returned to the Grand River; completely adopted the habits and customs of an Iroquois.

1805 — To England on behalf of Brant to argue for a transferable title to the Grand River lands.

1812-14 — Zealous and active in the cause of the king; led a band of Indians at Detroit, Queenston Heights and throughout the 1813 campaign on the Niagara front; became embroiled in a controversy with William Claus, William Caldwell and the British Indian Department over authority to manage his own particular band of Indians independent of departmental control; induced Prevost to detach him from all control or subordination in the affairs of the Six Nations; lost favour with some of the Grand River Iroquois chiefs.

1815 — Became insolent and insubordinate to British military officers and was finally discharged from all duties or management of Indian affairs.

1823 — Living at Grand River; killed an Iroquois, Big Arrow, and promptly fled to England; drew a pension from the British government and lived his last years in England.

1831 — Died about 1831 in England; he drew his pension until October of that year.

William Caldwell (1747-1822)

1747 — Born in Ireland; migrated to America prior to 1774.

1774 — Participated in Dunmore's War.

1777 — Staunch Loyalist; raised a company of Butler's Rangers and appointed a captain in the corps.

1778 — Most active in the royal cause throughout the American Revolution; at Wyoming, German Flats and Cherry Valley raids.

1779 — Fought against Sullivan.

1782 — In Ohio campaigns; at Sandusky and prominent at Battle of Blue Licks where the legendary Daniel Boone was routed.

1783 — Settled along Detroit River in township of Malden.

1794 — Most sympathetic to Indian Ohio River boundary claims; led a contingent of "white auxiliaries" from Detroit-Malden township region to support Indians against Wayne at Fallen Timbers.

1796-1811 — Assisted in planning the Amherstburg town site; engaged in a rivalry with Matthew Elliott over provisioning the new British garrison at Fort Malden with beef; served for a while as justice of the peace for Essex; became a colonel in the Essex militia; two children — "Billy" and "Mary" — by a Wyandot woman.

1812 — Appointed quartermaster general of militia with the British "Right Division" during the War of 1812; at capture of Detroit.

1814 — Appointed superintendent to the western Indians following the death of Elliott; appointed acting deputy superintendent general of Indian affairs when Claus became incapacitated owing to a long illness.

1815 — December, suspended from his posts in the Indian Department because tribal chiefs expressed their dislike for him; Indian loyalties divided between Caldwell and the department and John Norton; retired on half pay and spent last years quietly at Amherstburg.

1822 — Died at Amherstburg, Upper Canada.

Robert Dickson (1765-1823)

1765 — Born in Dumfries, Scotland.

1786 — To Canada; engaged at Fort Erie in loading goods for the northwest fur trade.

1787 — Employed as interpreter and storekeeper for the British Indian Department at Michilimackinac; attended grand council of Indians on 12 July.

1797 — Married To-to-win, a young maiden of the Wah-pe-ton-wan Sioux, and solidified his growing fur-trade interests; considerable influence with the tribes of the northwest, particularly the Minnesota Sioux; based at Lake Traverse.

1806 — Organized short-lived Robert Dickson and Company.

1808 — Became member of Michilimackinac Company, also a failure.

1812 — Became a most valuable ally of the British and organized the tribes of the northwest against Americans; at capture of Michilimackinac (July); spent remainder of year recruiting Indians and despatching them to the assistance of the British on the Detroit front.

1813 — Appointed agent and superintendent to the western Indians; responsible for collecting and sending 1400-1500 warriors to the British in this year alone; at Fort Stephenson affair (August).

1814 — Continued to rally Indians to the British cause; at successful defence of Michilimackinac (August); and participated in the daring capture of the American schooners Tigress and Scorpion (September) on Lake Huron; to Fort McKay where a feud developed with the British military and Andrew Bulger over the feeding of the Indians; deprived of his appointment in the Indian Department.

1815 — Completely vindicated at a hearing in Quebec; rewarded with title of lieutenant colonel and retired with a pension of £200 per year.

1816-17 — Plan to provision Selkirk settlement on Red River with beef failed.

1820-23 — Travelled aimlessly throughout Red River colony and upper Great Lakes hoping to reestablish his fur trade interests.

1823 — Died 23 June at Drummond Island; unfortunately for Canadians the heroic exploits of Robert Dickson during the War of 1812 are little known; his military record and achievements on behalf of this country should place him beside Brock and Tecumseh in the esteemed annals of Canadian history.

Thomas "Tige" Anderson (about 1786-1858)

1786 — Born about 1786, place unknown.

1814— Raised a company of "Mississippi Volunteers" in the service of the king; at capture of Prairie du Chien (July); served as commandant at Fort McKay (Prairie du Chien) through the summer.

1815 — September, appointed a captain in the British Indian Department at Drummond Island.

1816 — August, appointed interpreter, storekeeper and clerk for the Indian Department at Drummond Island.

1828 — Removed with military garrison to Penetanguishene.

1858 — Died at Penetanguishene. Canada.

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