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Park Summaries
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All text and photos are copyrighted by Parks Canada or the Canadian Register of Historic Places (except as noted) and were extracted from either the Parks Canada or Canada's Historic Places Websites. Parks with a grey background are managed by Parks Canada.



©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
57-63 St. Louis Street National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Part of an historic significant streetscape.

57-63 St. Louis Street is a grouping of three two and two-and-a-half- storey early eighteenth and nineteenth century stone houses within the walls of Quebec City's Upper Town at the foot of Cavelier du Moulin Park, forming part of the panoramic townscape of old Quebec.

57-63 St. Louis Street was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1969 because these buildings are part of an important urban panorama.

The heritage value of 57-63 St. Louis Street National Historic Site of Canada resides in the consistent streetscape created by this grouping of buildings originating in the French Regime, and their contribution to the larger cultural landscape of Vieux Quebec. The site's value is carried by the massing, materials, design, and craftsmanship of the component parts of this streetscape and by its setting within the gates of the old city. It is an important example of the continuity of 18th century French Regime architectural and landscape values within the historic townscape of Old Quebec.

59-61 St. Louis Street was built during the French Regime at the beginning of the 18th century and was expanded in 1796. 57 and 63 St. Louis Street, extensions dating from the beginning of the nineteenth century, form with 59-61 St. Louis Street, a single property. In 1811, the entire property was sold to the British government for use as an officers' residence. The British also built a military hospital at the south end of the property. The house and its annexes have continued to reflect the architectural forms, materials, and spatial relationships of the early nineteenth century.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2002
Acton Vale Railway Station (Grand Trunk) National Historic Site of Canada
Acton Vale, Québec

Acton Vale Railway Station (Grand Trunk) National Historic Site of Canada is a small passenger terminal located in the town of Action Vale, Quebec. This picturesque, wooden building features a variety of structural shapes and details including a turret, multi-paned windows, rooftop dormers and high-pitched gables. Large brackets support the overhanging eaves of the bellcast roof.

The Acton Vale Railway Station (Grand Trunk) expresses the development of the Grand Trunk Company railway in Quebec. The design of this building is based on a standard plan used by the Grand Trunk Railway Company to build several stations between 1895 and 1905 on the line connecting Montréal to Portland Maine. Formed in 1853, the Grand Trunk Railway Company became part of the Canadian National Railway Company after the latter was created in 1919. The heritage value of this site resides in the surviving elements of its original design, materials and decoration. It now functions as the town tourist office and exhibition centre.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Alert Hangar National Historic Site of Canada
La Baie, Québec

The Alert Hangar National Historic Site of Canada is situated at the eastern end of the Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Bagotville, Quebec. Located in the alert area at the end of the airstrip, it is composed of four large steel hangars grouped two-by-two and set either side of a smaller rectangular Domestic Centre. Each hangar features a steel gable roof and two large, three-panel doors that open vertically at at the front and back. The hangars are connected to the central domestic centre by two covered passageways.

During the Cold War the Bagotville Alert Hangar formed part of a network of five Canadian all-weather jet fighter bases designed to counter surprise attacks by Soviet bombers. The Alert Hangar speaks to the unique lifestyle of its occupants during the Cold War, when operational, pilots and ground personnel spent up to a week at a time inside the hangar. Pocket doors at each end of the building enabled pilots to take off quickly in the event of an alert. Eating facilities and sleeping quarters were located in the Domestic Centre a few metres from the armed and prepared aircraft. Like their Second World War counterparts, the Bagotville pilots had to be ready to jump into the cockpit at any moment. The Cold War pilots lived in a constant state of alert for over thirty years in structures reflecting the anticipated continuation of wars. The Alert Hangar is based on the first model developed by the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in the 1950s, and is one of the last surviving examples of its type in Canada. Austere in appearance, it is distinguished by its imposing size and its supremely functional architecture.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1993
Apitipik National Historic Site of Canada
Gallichan, Québec

Apitipik National Historic Site of Canada consists of an isolated 272-hectare archaeological site located in the municipality of Gallichan, Quebec. The site sits at the eastern end of Lake Abitibi, at the mouth of the Duparquet River, near the Ontario-Quebec border. Often referred to as "Pointe Abitibi," the site is a traditional summering area and sacred place for the Algonquin peoples of the region. Apitipik includes nearly 30 archaeological sites recording 6000 years of human occupation. The site also includes the remains of numerous trading posts that operated from the 17th century onward.

The heritage value of Apitipik lies in its historical and archaeological associations with the Abitibi Algonquin as reflected in the land itself and in the above and below ground remains of human occupation. Apitipik is a sacred place and a traditional summer gathering place for the Apitipi8innik and their ancestors. It contains evidence of various periods of occupation, dating as far back as 6000 years. For example, the area contains specific paleo-historic sites that date from 4000 BCE to 1100 CE, including the investigated sites of Ki8ack8e matcite8eia, Bérubé, Margot, and Réal. Apitipik also includes numerous trading posts related to the North West and Hudson's Bay Companies, which operated from the 17th century onward. Apitipik is of spiritual and cultural significance to both the Pikogan and Wahgoshig communities.

©Pierre Lahoud, 2010
Arvida Historic District National Historic Site of Canada
Arvida, Québec

The town of Arvida, located in the Saguenay—Lac-Saint-Jean region some 250 km north of Quebec City, was designed as a whole from the outset. Its location was determined by the 1924 establishment of an Alcoa aluminum plant, sited there to take advantage of the region's rich water resources. Arvida was built to house the plant's large workforce and was essentially constructed in three phases from 1925 to 1950. The perimeter proposed in this application clearly reflects this planning and the three phases of the construction. The main original features are still extant and recognizable in their original locations.

The Arvida Historic District is of historical importance because:

laid out starting in 1925 according to the plans of architects Brainerd and Skougor, the town of Arvida was completed in three successive phases running until 1950, and constitutes an excellent synthesis of the town planning concepts of the time, such as the City Beautiful and garden city movements, that are expressed by an organic layout following the lie of the land, a hierarchy of thoroughfares, and a network of parks, green spaces, and plentiful trees;

Arvida is a well preserved example of a Canadian company town and is a singular instance of planned quality worker housing, where a diversified urban landscape was rapidly established through a wide variety of housing styles, some of which constitute a particularly successful manifestation of regionally inspired architecture;

associated with Canada's first aluminum complex, Arvida's expansion is a testament to the growth and development of the country's aluminum industry.

©Mechanics' Institute of Montréal Archives / Archives du Mechanics' Institute of Montréal, 1920
Atwater Library of the Mechanics' Institute of Montréal National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Atwater Library of the Mechanics' Institute of Montreal is located at 1200 Atwater Ave. on the corner of Tupper St. in Westmount. It is a two-storey, brick, Beaux-Arts style building situated on a landscaped lot facing Cabot Square.

Atwater Library was built by the Mechanics' Institute of Montreal in 1918-1920, almost a century after the organization began. The Mechanics' Institute was an important social, cultural and educational movement devoted to universal education and technical training which, during the 19th century, had many branches in Canada. It has roots in the adult and community education traditions of 18th and 19th-century Great Britain.

Heritage value of the Atwater Library resides in its representation of the role of Mechanics' Institutes in Canada, and particularly in Montréal as illustrated by this building's physical embodiment of the institute's principles and ideals and by its continuing operation as a dual function library and meeting place. Value also resides in the building's Edwardian-Baroque Beaux-Arts design, its composition, site and setting.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Banc de Pêche de Paspébiac National Historic Site of Canada
Paspébiac, Québec

Banc de Pêche de Paspébiac National Historic Site of Canada is an inshore fisheries landscape containing 10 of the approximately 60 buildings that once stood on the sandspit surrounding the broad barachois lagoon at Paspébiac on Québec's Gaspé peninsula. The buildings use a simple classically derived vocabulary in the New England tradition. The site was associated with the inshore fishery practiced in the region for more than 150 years.

The heritage value of Banc de Pêche de Paspébiac National Historic Site of Canada resides in the site's association with inshore fishery as illustrated by its setting, structures and buildings. Most of the surviving buildings originated in the 19th century and are associated with the business complexes of two of the most powerful companies in what was a deeply syndicated industry. The largest complex was built by Charles Robin and Co., created in 1766 and variously known as Robin, Pipon and Co., C. Robin and Co. Ltd., and the Charles Robin-Collas Co. Ltd. as it continued to operate well into the 20th century. A second, smaller complex was the premise of the Le Boutillier Brothers, established in 1838. In 1964, fire destroyed most of the early complexes, leaving only seven buildings and a powder magazine built by Robin and three buildings constructed by Le Boutillier Brothers. Four of these buildings also have been separately commemorated as Paspébiac Buildings National Historic Site of Canada.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canadav
Bank of Montréal National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Bank of Montréal is a late-19th-century bank building, built in the Queen Anne Revival style. It is located at the corner of Notre-Dame and Seigneurs streets in the city of Montréal.

The Bank of Montréal was designated a national historic site in 1990 because the building is a particularly good example of the Queen Anne Revival Style, as expressed in commercial architecture.

Built for the bank of the same name, the Bank of Montréal building is a rare surviving example of the Queen Anne Revival style applied to a commercial building. Its use of Flemish motifs in imitation of a Flemish public building is typical of the style.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989
Battle of Eccles Hill National Historic Site of Canada
Frelighsburg, Québec

Battle of Eccles Hill National Historic Site of Canada is located on a hill near the Canada-United States border between Vermont and Quebec, close to Frelighsburg, Quebec. It overlooks the battlefield where the Battle of Eccles Hill took place in 1870. The field, over 3,000 square metres, is surrounded by a fence on three sides and by a road on the fourth, and includes a three-pound canon, remnants of the confrontation and a commemorative granite monument dating back to 1902.

The historical value of the site lies in its association with the events of the Battle of Eccles Hill. In 1870 the Fenians crossed the Canada-United States border at the top of Eccles Hill and came up against Canadian home guards and volunteers. This confrontation was initiated by a group of Irish patriots exiled to the United States to start a revolutionary movement for Ireland's independence. They wanted to weaken England by attacking Canada, which proved to be a failure.

The site and the granite monument commemorating the event are located relatively close to the battlefield and the Canadian positions, but the battle took place just south of the Canada-United States border.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2011
Battle of the Cedars National Historic Site of Canada
Les Cèdres, Québec

The Battle of the Cedars National Historic Site of Canada is located at Les Cèdres, 52 km south-west of Montreal, Quebec, on the banks of the St. Lawrence River. There are no visible remains of the battle, during which British and Canadian forces defeated American forces that held a post at Les Cèdres, on the 19th - 20th of May, 1776, and also defeated the American reinforcements on the 21st of May, 1776. A Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque was erected in 1980 to commemorate the battle site. Surrounded by a small fence, the cairn stands in a small grassed plot at the edge of the Chemin du Fleuve surrounded by farmland and trees.

In 1776, during the Revolutionary War (1775-1783), American soldiers invaded Canada and occupied the city of Montreal. To protect their western flank from British attacks the Americans established a small outpost at Les Cèdres, Quebec. The Battle of the Cedars occurred when British forces advanced from the Niagara region encountered this American outpost. British Captain George Forster, commanding a detachment of the 8th Regiment, was supported by Cayugas, Senecas and Mississaugas under Captain Guillaume de Lorimier. During the battle the Forster's forces were reinforced by 30 Canadians led by Captain J.B. Testard de Montigny.

Captain Forster's force attacked the American outpost and after a short siege the Americans surrendered. American reinforcements that arrived the next day also surrendered when they encountered Captain Forster's force. Though victorious in the Battle of the Cedars Captain Forster did not have the resources to advance to Montreal which remained under American occupation until June of 1776.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1920
Battle of the Châteauguay National Historic Site of Canada
Allans Corners, Québec

Site of 1813 battle in defence of Lower Canada; War of 1812.

On October 26, 1813, the Canadian troops under the command of Charles-Michel de Salaberry won an important victory over the invading American forces led by General Wade Hampton.

The scene of this battle is located on the shores of the Châteauguay River, 50 km southwest of Montréal, near the U.S.-Canada border.

Battle of the Châteauguay National Historic Site commemorates this feat of arms and the role played by the different combatants in defending Canada.

Battle of the Châteauguay National Historic Site of Canada is a small fragment of a War of 1812 battlefield located on the banks of the Châteauguay River at Allans's Corners in the municipality of Howick, near Ormstown, some 50 kilometres south-west of Montréal.

Battle of the Châteauguay was declared a national historic site because it was the site of a Canadian victory on 26 October 1813, and because of the role French Canadian troops played in the defence of Canada against American invasion during the War of 1812.

The heritage value of Battle of the Châteauguay National Historic Site resides in its identity as a memorial remnant in the midst of the legible, relatively undisturbed cultural landscape of the battlefield which extends from the fork of the Châteauguay and Outardes Rivers to that of the Châteauguay and English, covering an area of about 500 acres. The centre of the battlefield was located between Morrison Ford and Round Point.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989
Battle of Lacolle National Historic Site of Canada
Notre-Dame-du-Mont-Carmel, Québec

Battle of Lacolle National Historic Site of Canada is located within a suburb of the town of Lacolle, Quebec, just north of the border between Canada and the United States. In March 1814, a small force composed of the British garrison the 13th Regiment of Foot, Royal Marines, Canadian Fencibles, Voltigeurs and Aboriginal warriors withstood an attack by 4,000 American soldiers. Resistance to the American forces centred at the local mill on the river's southern bank and a blockhouse 200 metres away on the northern bank. The mill's location on the Lacolle River is marked by an HSMBC cairn next to the road.

The Battle of Lacolle, the final battle against the American invasion of Lower-Canada during the War of 1812, is valued for its associations with the protection of Canada. Following a previously unsuccessful attempt to march into Montreal in 1812, Major-General James Wilkinson planned an American invasion of Lower-Canada for March 1814. Major-General Wilkinson crossed the frontier with an army of 4 000 men and headed towards the Lacolle River where he had been defeated in 1812. On March 30th 1814, the Americans opened fire on the mill near the Lacolle River where Major R.B. Handcock led a small force of approximately 500 men. This force comprised a small British garrison of the 13th Regiment of Foot, Royal Marines, Canadian Fencibles, Voltigeurs and Aboriginal warriors. Major Handcock's forces withstood the attack on the fortified mill. Daunted by Major Handcock's resistance, Major-General Wilkinson gave up his incursion and retreated to the American border, thus ending the last American invasion of Lower Canada during the War of 1812.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2006
Battle of the Lake of Two Mountains National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Battle of the Lake of Two Mountains National Historic Site of Canada is located on the western end of Montreal Island, on Lac des Deux Montagnes, in Quebec. The site, of which there are no extant remains, consists of a square plot of land centred around a Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC) plaque commemorating the battle.

Following the Lachine Massacre of August 1689, the Iroquois that remained in the area posed a threat to the residents of the Island of Montréal and the surrounding villages. In October, Governor Denonville dispatched a scouting party, composed of 28 "coureurs de bois" under the command of Sieurs Dulhut and d'Ailleboust de Manthet. They encountered a group of 22 Iroquois, resulting in a skirmish at Lac des Deux Montagnes. The French party defeated the Iroquois and reported no casualties, which restored the confidence of the inhabitants of the area.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2007
Battle of the Restigouche National Historic Site of Canada
Pointe-à-la-Croix, Québec

Site of last naval battle in Seven Years' War.

The Battle of the Restigouche National Historic Site is located at the mouth of the Restigouche River, at the far end of Chaleur Bay. It is here that the last naval battle between France and Great Britain for possession of the North American continent took place. The confrontation finally ended on July 8, 1760, sealing the fate of New France forever after. Vestiges of the frigate The Machault are on display at an interpretation centre located on the site. The vessel was part of the relief expedition dispatched from France to retake the city of Québec, which had fallen to British arms the previous autumn. At this National Historic Site, you will discover a splendid collection of artifacts retrieved from the wreck. You will relive one of the little-known events of the Seven Years' War in North America.

Battle of Restigouche National Historic Site of Canada is located at the bottom of the Chaleur Bay, in the estuary of Restigouche River between New Brunswick and Quebec. The site consists of in situ remains of two French ships sunk by the British in the Battle of Restigouche, June 22 to July 8, 1760. The 350-ton Bienfaisant, a supply ship remains mostly undisturbed, while part of the 550-ton Machault, an armed frigate, is still underwater. A ballast dump, featuring a concentration of metal materials from French ships, is also encompassed in the designation.

In 1760, a small French fleet, consisting of the Machault, the Bienfaisant and the Marquis de Malauze, under Sieur François Chenard de la Giraudais returned from an aid-seeking mission in France. Upon reaching the St. Lawrence River and discovering that British reinforcements had preceded them, the fleet sought refuge in Chaleur Bay. Expecting the arrival of the French fleet, Captain Byron of the British ship, Fame, departed from Louisbourg with a small fleet, meeting the French who were accompanied by 300 Acadians and 250 Mi'kmaq on June 22 in the Restigouche River. In an effort to block the British attack, the French built a battery at Pointe-à-la-Batterie under Donat de la Garde.

In the evening of June 28 through 29, two British frigates, the Repulse and the Scarborough succeeded in clearing a southern passage through the chain of sunken hulks. Bypassing the French defences, the British were able to destroy Pointe-à-la-Batterie, on July 2. On July 8, three British ships, the Repulse, the Scarborough and a schooner again bypassed the two chains of hulks sunk by the French. Facing the Machault and the two French batteries at Pointe des Sauvages and Pointe de la Mission, the Repulse was driven aground. However, without further reinforcement the French were forced to set the severely depleted Machault and the Bienfaisant ablaze in order to prevent capture. The third French ship, the Marquis de Malauze, was set ablaze by British captives on board once freed by their compatriots. In 1939, the wreck of the Marquis de Malauze was removed by the Department of Transportation. Since the 1960s, the wrecks have been the subject of several underwater archaeological investigations.

Battle of Rivière des Prairies / Battle of Coulée Grou National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Battle of Rivière des Prairies / Battle of Coulée Grou National Historic Site of Canada is located on a rolling, partially treed landscape near the coast of the Island of Montréal in Québec. It was the site of a battle between a group of Iroquois and a group of French settlers in 1690. There are no extant remains of the battle; however, the site is marked by a Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada commemorative plaque that is located approximately 60 metres from the creek on Gouin Boulevard.

On July 2 1690, the Sieur de Colombet, a former lieutenant in the French army, was alerted to the presence of a group of Iroquois on the nearby Rivière des Prairies, prompting him to gather 25 settlers to investigate. They traveled to the property of Jean Grou, near the creek bearing his name, and fired on the canoes of the Iroquois, killing four. The Iroquois, numbering roughly 100, landed and engaged in combat with the French. In the ensuing battle 15 French and 30 Iroquois were killed or taken prisoner.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989
Battle of September 6th, 1775 National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec

The Battle of September 6th, 1775 National Historic Site of Canada is located in the town of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu 43 km south-east of Montréal, Quebec. Situated near Rivière Bernier, formerly named Montgomery Creek, the site is less than a kilometre from the Richelieu River and is 1.6 km from Fort Saint-Jean National Historic Site of Canada. There are no extant remains of the battle of September 6th, 1775, in which a patrol of Aboriginal warriors, many of them Mohawk, led by a Grand Chief and two European Captains turned back an American invasion force. Marked by a Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque, erected in 1929, the site is now a grassed area flanked by maple trees adjacent to a private golf course.

In 1775, during the American Revolutionary War, an American army led by Major-General Philip Schuyler, Colonel Benedict Arnold and Brigadier General Richard Montgomery launched an invasion into British-Canada, in an attempt to gain military control of the Province of Quebec. Brigadier-General Montgomery led one half of the invasion force, consisting of 1,500 soldiers, across the border and assembled on Île-aux-Noix in the Richelieu River, north of Lake Champlain. On September 6th, 1775 Montgomery and Major-General Schuyler sailed down the Richelieu River intending to attack Fort Saint-Jean. After landing on the west bank of the Richelieu, approximately 1.6 km from Fort Saint-Jean, the invasion force was fired upon by a patrol of approximately 100 Aboriginal warriors, many of them Mohawk, led by Grand Chief Solsienhooane and captains Gilbert Tice and Guillaume de Lorimier. During the battle, eight Americans were killed and nine were wounded while the patrol of Tice and Lorimier suffered four dead and five wounded, including Captain Tice. The Americans were forced to retreat to Île-aux-Noix. Though successfully turned back on the night of September 6th the American force returned and succeeded in besieging Fort Saint-Jean on September 13th for forty-five days until the fort capitulated November 3rd, 1775. The American invasion of Canada continued into the year 1776 until the arrival of British reinforcements helped to successfully drive the invasion force back across the border.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, dossier 8400-153
Battle of Trois-Rivières National Historic Site of Canada
Trois-Rivières, Québec

On June 8th, 1776, the British troops, entrenched on the low ground near this place, under the command of General Simon Fraser, repulsed and inflicted severe losses on an American column commanded by General Thompson.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2002
Beauharnois Power Development National Historic Site of Canada
Beauharnois, Québec

Socially, financially and politically important, 1929-32.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1970
Bélanger-Girardin House National Historic Site of Canada
Beauport, Québec

The Bélanger-Girardin House is a steep-roofed, one-and-a-half-storey, stone house, built in the early-18th century in the Québecois tradition. It includes an attached shed, added in the early 19th century. The house is located within the historic town of Beauport, just outside Québec City in the St. Lawrence River Valley. The house is set within expansive grassed grounds, adjacent to a convent, that give it a semi-rural flavour.

Bélanger-Girardin House was designated a national historic site in 1982 because in both its structural evolution and its design, it is representative of early French Regime houses erected in the countryside near Québec City.

The Bélanger-Girardin house is a rare surviving example of a stone house from the early part of the French regime. It is located in Beauport, one of the first seigneuries of New France.

The present house was erected in two stages (ca. 1722-27 and ca. 1735), adding to and eventually replacing a wood house built by the first settler, Nicholas Bellanger, ca. 1673. The 1735 work was carried out by a later owner, stonemason Jean Marcou. The remains of the original wood structure are visible only in the interior and west walls of the present stone house. Cléophas Girardin was a later occupant of the house.

The Bélanger-Girardin house is typical of rural Quebec domestic architecture of the early 18th century in its form, materials, proportions, openings and interior plan. It represents the transfer of traditional domestic forms and construction methods from northern France to the St. Lawrence Valley. The use of plaster roughcast to cover the stone represents the adaptation of familiar forms and methods to the new climate and geography of New France.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1991
Berthier Railway Station (Canadian Pacific) National Historic Site of Canada
Sainte-Geneviève-de-Berthier, Québec

Berthier Railway Station is located several miles outside the town of Sainte-Genevieve-de-Berthier along the Canadian Pacific Rail line. It is a picturesque 1 1/2-storey late 19th-century railway station built in wood.

Berthier Railway Station (Canadian Pacific) was designated a National Historic Site in 1976 because it reflects the expansion of the Canadian Pacific Railway.

Berthier Railway Station was built by the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa and Occidental (OMO&O) Railroad in 1877 as one of a series of small domestic stations along its railway line along the St. Lawrence Valley between Montreal and Quebec. The Canadian Pacific Railway acquired this line in 1885 to initiate improvement of its service to the Atlantic Ocean, and it functioned as a CPR station for over a century. This building did not meet the criteria to become a heritage railway station. The heritage value of Berthier Railway Station resides in its function, its site, its standard design and composition.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1991
Beth Israël Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Beth Israël Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada occupies approximately one acre of land in an area that marks the transition between the commercial and residential sections of the city and of the campus of Laval University, in the Sainte-Foy-Sillery district of the City of Québec. The cemetery is rectangular in shape and is protected by a low stonewall topped by an iron railing along René-Lévesque West Boulevard and a snow fence along its other three sides. The cemetery's layout is simple, with trees and shrubs, two walkways traversing the property and a funeral home. The site is characterized by the spatial organization of 300 or so tombstones, of simple and discreet design, that bear Hebrew inscriptions and are arranged closely together in linear rows. There are also numerous distinctive religious symbols, specifically relating to the Jewish faith.

Since the latter half of the 19th century, most members of the Jewish community in the City of Québec have been interred at the Beth Israel Cemetery. The cemetery remains as a rare witness to the founding of a community by the first Jewish settlers in the second half of the 18th century. Although the Jewish presence in the City of Québec had been long established, it was only in the mid 19th century that the community grew large enough to found a congregation. Between 1840 and 1858, the property was purchased by a Jewish merchant, consecrated and then transferred to the Beth Israel Ohev Sholem congregation in 1894.

The cemetery contains about 300 headstones arranged closely together in straight lines. This spatial organization is characteristic of all known Jewish graveyards, and has its origins in the Judaic belief that burial is the only sanctioned way to lay a person to rest. Consequently, the space in a Jewish cemetery has always been accorded great value and must not be wasted. Of equal importance is the profound conviction that in death all humans are equal. Once inside a cemetery, all social distinctions are erased and there are no preferred or reserved sites. The rules governing the layout of the cemetery also apply to the design of the markers. The majority of Jewish graves are marked by simple, discrete stones and it was only in the late 19th century that markers in the Greek Revival style, including obelisks, columns and broken columns, were erected. Most plots in Beth Israel Cemetery are bounded by retaining masonry walls, allowing for the lots to be elevated above ground-level.

©Regimental Museum
Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada Armoury National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada Armoury National Historic Site of Canada is located on a busy thoroughfare at the centre of Montréal, Québec. The irregularly- planned armoury consists of two flat-roofed two-storey blocks at the front and rear joined by the large gable-roofed drill hall between them. The symmetrical primary façade is faced with rusticated and textured grey Montréal limestone and with motifs suggestive of a Scottish baronial castle and the current and previous names of the regiment in metal letters above the entrance. The other three façades are of brick.

Since 1906, the armoury has been the home of the Black Watch, one of Canada's oldest regiments. Created by Montréal's Scottish business community in 1862 as the Royal Light Infantry, the regiment was raised at the same time as five other infantry regiments as part of the rapid expansion of Canada's Active Volunteer Militia. The Black Watch regiment of Canada participated, along with its Scottish parent regiment, in the Boer War, and both World Wars. Following the Second World War, the regiment saw action in various other military and peacekeeping operations up until 1970, when it was removed from the Regular Force, leaving only its militia elements active.

In reference to the Scottish origins of the regiment, the primary façade of the armoury was designed in the martial Scottish Baronial style, with its associated military motifs, including towers, turrets, and an imitation portcullis. Black Watch Armoury is one of six purpose-built armouries in Montréal. Designed for storage and training, this armoury and others of its type, with their drill, classroom and recreational facilities, played an important role in the modernization of the militia.

The Black Watch regiment and the armoury continue to play an important role in the community, participating in many events that are well attended by the public. The regiment is particularly well known for its annual church parade, as well as its involvement in various other parades throughout the year. The regiment also assists with a number of charitable causes for veterans and affiliated organizations. The armoury is regularly used for community and fundraising events and in support of the Gaelic community, both in Montréal and the surrounding area.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Laura-Lee Bolger, 2005
Blanc-Sablon National Historic Site of Canada
Blanc-Sablon, Québec

Blanc-Sablon National Historic Site of Canada is located on the western bank of the Blanc-Sablon River at its confluence with the Gulf of the St. Lawrence on the Strait of Belle Isle, in Quebec. Vegetation in the region is sparse and the area is covered by moss and a few small bodies of water. The site encompasses over 60 archaeological sites relating to its use as a centre for resource exploitation by successive cultural groups from over the past nine millennia, including, Archaic (9000 — 3500 B.C.E.), Post-Archaic (3500-400 B.C.E), Dorset 500 B.C.E. — 1500 A.D., European (1500-1900 A.D.), and French and English Canadian.

The archaeological sites within Blanc-Sablon are demonstrative of the continuous occupation of the Quebec-Labrador peninsula by the Inuit for over 9000 years. The site is located on the banks of the Blanc Sablon River, which lies between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of the St. Lawrence. The sheltered harbour into which the river flows benefits from the cold Labrador Current, which stirs up nutrients, contributes to the richness of the region's waters and attracts a variety of marine life. The quantity and diversity of wildlife remains found at the site testify to the importance of coastal resources, particularly seals, for the diet of the area's inhabitants and explains why this area was occupied repeatedly for millennia by many aboriginal peoples, including Archaic, Post-Archaic, and Dorset.

Set against Mount Parent, a high rocky elevation, the site's uneven terrain is made up of many marine beach terraces formed by receding water, which resemble giant steps that lead down to the ocean. Around 7000 B.C.E., Aboriginal peoples began to inhabit the region and remains of their encampments have been found on the terraces. Archaeological remains found here provide evidence of regular occupation and of Aboriginal societal evolution. Near the current shoreline, there is also evidence of first contacts between Aboriginals and Europeans, as well as a European and Euro-Canadian presence since the first half of the 16th century.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Bolton-Est Town Hall National Historic Site of Canada
East Bolton, Québec

Bolton-Est Town Hall National Historic Site of Canada consists of a two-storey clapboard township hall building, located in the municipality of Bolton-Est, Quebec. Although the building dates from the second half of the 19th century and is very small in scale, Bolton-Est Town Hall has a highly sophisticated architectural design. Designed to serve several purposes, the Bolton-Est Town Hall contained facilities for town administration and a courtroom.

The Municipal and Road Act for Lower Canada was passed in 1855, resulting in the construction of many public buildings in the English-speaking communities of rural Québec during the second half of the 19th century. The Bolton-Est Town Hall was erected in 1867 and for economic reasons, used a volunteer community workforce, was constructed of locally obtained wood and was designed to serve various functions. It housed a council chamber and a social meeting place; however, the presence of a classroom on the ground floor is unique and distinguishes the building from previous township halls in Canada. The Bolton-Est Town Hall is also a rare example of a wood township hall that has preserved some of its functions, its original appearance and its sophisticated architecture. This structure stands as a graceful tribute to the development of local self-government and to community spirit in Canada.

©Library and Archives Canada/ Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, 1909-10
Bon-Pasteur Chapel National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

The Bon-Pasteur Chapel National Historic Site of Canada is part of a complex of religious buildings in the city of Québec. The chapel is a rectangular five-storey stone-faced building with a gable roof and is part of the motherhouse of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, like the buildings flanking its sides. It is prized for its very fine interior designed by Charles Baillargé.

The Bon-Pasteur Chapel was designated a national historic site of Canada in 1975 because it is an outstanding example of religious architecture in Québec.

The Bon-Pasteur Chapel, built between 1866 and 1868, was designed by the noted Québec architect Charles Baillairgé as part of a group of buildings forming the motherhouse of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd of Québec. The chapel was enlarged in 1909-1910 with a new façade designed by François-Xavier Berlinguet. The unaltered interior's strong vertical lines, double row of galleries and interplay of curves lends emphasis to the calm, spiritual qualities intended by the original architect. This quality, along with the exceptional late 18th-century carved altars, designed by Pierre-François Baillairgé, distinguishes the building as a noteworthy example of church architecture in Québec.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Bonsecours Market National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Bonsecours Market is a monumental, domed masonry building that stretches a full city block in "Old Montréal". Built in the Neoclassical style and located at the edge of the old port, it has become a symbol of the city. Originally it housed the city's first city hall, together with a public market, meeting and exhibition rooms, and a concert hall. Rehabilitated in the mid-twentieth century, it now accommodates exhibitions, shops and restaurants.

Bonsecours Market was designated a national historic site in 1984 because this imposing building, the largest town hall built in Canada during the mid-19th-century, reflects the rise of Montréal to metropolitan status; and because this Neoclassical building housed both a market and public rooms and served for several years as Montréal's city hall.

The heritage value of the site resides in its historical role in the city of Montréal and in its imposing design and construction. Originally constructed from 1844 to 1847 to designs by architect William Footner, a concert hall was added in 1852 by architect George Browne. Inaugurated in 1847 as a public market, the building also briefly housed the Parliament of the Canadas in 1849, and served as Montréal's city hall from 1852 to 1878. Bonsecours Market continued as Montréal's principal public market for more than a hundred years.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Cap-des-Rosiers Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada
Gaspé, Québec

This thirty-seven metre high stone light-tower is perched atop rugged cliffs near the village Cap-des-Rosiers, Québec. The exposed point of land is at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River where it enters the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Witness to many shipwrecks, the lighthouse continues to guide ships navigating these treacherous waters. Tourists are welcome to visit the lighthouse today.

The heritage value of Cap-des-Rosiers Lighthouse lies in its siting, design, construction and materials. Its impressive height and tapering profile are archetypical lighthouse qualities. Cap-des-Rosiers Lighthouse was designed by John Page, Chief Engineer of the Department of Public Works of the United Canadas, and built by contractor Charles François-Xavier Baby in 1853-1858. Since 1858 it has operated using its original optical apparatus although the technology of its light has changed from a catadioptric fixed white light (1858-1903), incandescent vapour petroleum light (1903-1921), a Canadian burner lamp (1921-1950), a manually operated electric lamp (1950-1972), a partially automated light (1972-1981), then a completely automated light (1981-2004). Its tower was coated with stucco in 1861, 1881 and 1897, and repaired in 1929-30, 1954 and 1984. Windows were replaced in 1884, and its stonework repaired in 1993.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1991
Capitol Theatre / Québec Auditorium National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

The Capitol Theatre/ Quebec Auditorium National Historic Site of Canada is a striking bow-fronted Beaux Arts-style theatre building on rue Saint-Jean, just outside the Porte Saint-Jean in Quebec City.

The heritage value of the Capitol Theatre / Québec Auditorium lies in the Beaux-Arts facade of the building, in the rich classical decor of its interior, and in its design as a theatre and movie palace. Designed by William S. Painter, and originally named the Auditorium of Québec, this building began as a legitimate theatre in 1903, and soon added vaudeville productions to its repertoire. In 1927 its interior was radically altered by architects Thomas W. Lamb and Hélidore Laberge to accommodate cinema, incorporating a new decor and a deep balcony. The building was renamed the Capitol Theatre in the 1930s and used as a cinema with occasional stage productions until the 1960s, then a movie theatre only until 1982. In 1992 the Théâtre Capitol Theatre / Québec Auditorium was restored and returned to operation as a legitimate theatre.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Carillon Barracks National Historic Site of Canada
Carillon, Québec

Early 19th-century stone military building.

Built between 1830 and 1837, the Carillon Barracks were erected during the construction of the first Ottawa River canal system, a project triggering a regional economic boom. The construction of this building was probably undertaken in order to mitigate a lack ofhousing as the site became a stopover.

During the events of 1837 and 1838, the British army requisitioned the building and made the first renovations to it. Between 1840 and 1936, the building was again used as a civil housing resource, as a hotel. Since then, the building houses the museum of the Historical Society of Argenteuil County.

Carillon Barracks National Historic Site of Canada is a two-storey stone barracks in a vernacular version of British classical design located on the main street of the village of Carillon, Quebec. It sits on land that slopes gently for about 61 metres (200 ft.) down to the banks of the Ottawa River at the foot of the Carillon Rapids. It is now operated as the Carillon Museum.

The heritage value of Carillon Barracks National Historic Site of Canada resides in its historical associations and in its excellent representation of a dual Officers' Quarters and NCO's Barracks in the British Classical tradition as illustrated by its site, setting, design and materials. Construction of the Carillon Barracks began in 1836 under its owner, former Deputy Commissary General C.J. Forbes, who had retired to Carillon. Before it had been completed, it was leased by the British Army during the 1837 Rebellion. During this period of civil disruption, it housed troops called in to suppress the rebellion in the Comté des Deux Montagnes. It also served as a stores depot for frontier garrisons on the St. Lawrence Front. During the construction of the Carillon and Chute-à-Blondeau canals, it was occupied, for a time, by Officers of the Royal Staff Corps. After the military withdrew in 1840, the building served as a hotel for many years. In 1938 it was restored to its 1837 appearance by Montreal architect and conservationist Percy Nobbs, and has been subsequently used as the premises of the Carillon Museum.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Carillon Canal National Historic Site of Canada
Carillon, Québec

Operational canal; site of two earlier canals, 1826-33.

The Carillon Canal, opened in 1833, bypasses the rapids of the Ottawa River, especially those at Long Sault. Originally built for military purposes, the canal was used for commerce from the outset.

Its location on the Ottawa River places it within the Montreal-Ottawa-Kingston inland shipping route. The present-day canal is used almost exclusively for pleasure boating, includes only one lock, which raises and lowers boats 20 m in a single operation.

Carillon Canal National Historic Site of Canada is a canal now used for recreational purposes, situated on the east side of the Ottawa River, 40 kilometres northwest of Montréal near the village of Carillon.

The heritage value of the Carillon Canal is reflected in the cultural landscape directly associated with the construction and operation of the canal including the land and water areas, which were modified and used before 1960. The Carillon Canal was built in 1829-1833 by the Royal Staff Corps of the British Army as a defence and immigration route, enlarged in 1873-1882 to improve its facilities for commercial navigation, then severely altered by the construction of a Hydro-Québec dam in 1960-1963. Today it is used for pleasure craft.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Cartier-Brébeuf National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Wintering place of Jacques Cartier, 1535-36.

Cartier-Brébeuf National Historic Site of Canada commemorates the period in 1535-1536 when Jacques Cartier and his shipmates wintered near the Iroquoian village of Stadacona. The site also bears witness to the first residence of the Jesuit missionaries, established in Québec in 1625-1626.

Located on the north shore of the Saint-Charles River in the heart of Québec, the site is a magnificent urban park offering countless opportunities for leisure and discovery.

Cartier-Brébeuf National Historic Site of Canada is a 6.8-hectare park located on the north bank of the Saint Charles River in the Limoilou district of Québec City. Originally located near the Iroquoian village of Stadacona, the site commemorates the winter quarters of Jacques Cartier and his companions in 1535-1536, and the first Jesuit missionary residence in Quebec constructed during the period 1625-1626. Today, grass, selective planting, mature trees, and walking and cycling paths characterize the landscaped site. Other features include an exhibit on the three voyages of the explorer Jacques Cartier, an interpretation kiosk on the Jesuits, a longhouse surrounded by a stake palisade, and a number of commemorative monuments, one of which represents the figures of Jacques Cartier and the great chief Donnacona of Stadacona.

The heritage value of Cartier-Brébeuf National Historic Site of Canada resides in the sense of place its location and historic monuments evoke. This historic park originated in 1889 when the Saint Jean Baptiste Society inaugurated a monument erected by the Cercle Catholique de Québec to commemorate it as the site of Jacques Cartier's winter quarters and Notre-Dame-des-Anges, the first Jesuit residence at Québec. Since the missionary Jean de Brébeuf visited this residence, the park was called Cartier-Brébeuf. It was transferred to the federal government in 1957-58 as a national historic site of Canada. In 1971, a reservoir was created in the park as an interpretation device that recalls the former confluence between the Saint Charles River and the Lairet, a river that is now channelled underground.

©Canadian Inventory of Historic Buildings / Inventaire des bâtiments historiques du Canada, 1966
Caughnawaga Mission / Mission of St. Francis Xavier National Historic Site of Canada
Kahnawake, Québec

Caughnawaga Mission / Mission of St. Francis Xavier National Historic Site of Canada is located on the banks of the St. Lawrence Seaway in Kahnawake Mohawk Territory, in Quebec. Jesuit Missionaries established the mission in 1716-1718. The site comprises four components: the Saint François Xavier Church (1845), the old presbytery (1716-1719) including its west wing and corridor, the sacristy (1831-1832), and the museum (1914). The mission is now located within the walls of Fort St-Louis National Historic Site of Canada.

The mission of St. François-Xavier was first founded at La Prairie in 1667 by the Jesuits for the local Christian Iroquois. It was forced to relocate several times due to economic concerns until finally settling permanently in Kahnawake in 1716.

The oldest surviving building on the site is the old presbytery, which was built between 1716 and 1719. The west wing, adjacent to the presbytery, and the old church was constructed soon after, in 1720. Until the fall of New France the Mohawks of Caughnawaga remained close allies of the French. As a result of this alliance, in 1725 the French built a palisade of wood, which was later replaced by stonework, to protect the mission. The remains of this palisade define the limits of Fort St-Louis National Historic Site of Canada, of which the mission is a part. In 1831 both a new tower for the St. Francis Xavier church and a sacristy were constructed for the instruction of the converted Iroquois.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1966
Caughnawaga Presbytery National Historic Site of Canada
Kahnawake, Québec

Caughnawaga Presbytery National Historic Site of Canada is located on the south bank of the St. Lawrence Seaway in Kahnawake Mohawk Territory, Quebec. The Presbytery, situated in the Mission of Caughnawaga, lies west of the Church and comprises two connected stone houses, the original Presbytery and the West House, also called the former Officers' Mess, set in an L-shaped configuration. Attached to the church through a corridor, the presbytery exemplifies architecture common to Québec in the late 17th and early 18th century. The ensemble is set within the perimeter of Fort St-Louis National Historic Site of Canada.

Jesuit missionaries founded the Mission of Caughnawaga at the French colony of La Prairie in 1667 to minister to Iroquois Christians. Nonetheless, it was displaced several times before coming to rest in Kahnawake. The Presbytery is one of the main components of the complex, and exemplifies architecture common in the province of Quebec in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. The importance of the presbytery is demonstrated in the good quality of craftsmanship, which is evident in the interior and exterior detailing of the structure. The Presbytery consists of two large, one-and-a-half-storey high stone buildings: the original presbytery, with a shingled gable roof, and the West House adjoining the south end of the residence. The semi-circular panel-heads of its doors is unique to early Canadian houses.

The original presbytery, the larger of the two buildings, has on the north elevation a glazed verandah with simple square posts and fretwork brackets at the top. The original presbytery is a simple rectangle of four bays, with a doorway to either end, and two widows between each with a pair of twelve paned casements. A steeply pitched hipped roof, covered in wood shingles, tops it. There are four dormers to the north, two to the east, one to the west, and three to the south. The lone chimneystack, made of brick, lies at the west end. The West House, sometimes referred to as the Officers' House Mess, is one-and-a-half storeys, and abuts the original presbytery on its southern wall. The steeply pitched roof adorns a gable wall of stone to the north, the side that adjoins the original presbytery.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Chambly Canal National Historic Site of Canada
Chambly, Québec

Operational canal; nine locks, swing bridges.

The Chambly Canal, which opened along the Richelieu in 1843, played a leading role in the Quebec forest products industry and in shipping these products to the burgeoning United States market.

For over a century, heavily loaded barges travelled the Canal, a distance of about 20 km. The nine locks allowed the barges to bypass rapids and overcome a considerable difference in levels between the Chambly basin and the Upper Richelieu.

Chambly Canal National Historic Site of Canada is located on the west bank of the Richelieu River, south-east of Montréal, Quebec. Twenty kilometres long, the Chambly Canal is a section of a waterway constructed in the 19th century between Chambly and Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu on Québec's Richelieu River. The canal constitutes part of an inland water transportation route joining Montréal and New York City. The site includes the waterway itself, nine locks, five weirs, two piers, dams, dikes and bridges, and several other elements and buildings associated with the operation of the canal.

The heritage value of Chambly Canal lies in the longstanding interrelationship between the composite parts of the canal's cultural landscape, namely the Richelieu River, the canal route, the dam on Fryer Island, and the buildings. The Chambly Canal was originally constructed to bypass the Chambly Rapids on the Richelieu River. Designed by engineer William R. Hopkins, it constituted eleven kilometres of canal built against one river bank with a berm or embankment to maintain the raised water, and an eight-kilometre cut parallel to the river. Built in 1831-1843 as a commercial route, it was altered in 1848-60, 1869-1880, and 1880-1895, and restored by Parks Canada for recreational use in 1977-1980 and 1990.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2008
Chapais House National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Denis-De La Bouteillerie, Québec

Chapais House National Historic Site of Canada is located on a narrow lot on the south shore of the St. Lawrence in the village of St. Denis, Quebec. This rectangular two-and-a-half storey clapboard building with rear wing, bellcast roof and dormers was for many years home to Jean-Charles Chapais, a Father of Confederation, and his son, historian Thomas Chapais. An excellent example of 19th-century Quebec architecture, the house features clapboard siding, large balconies surrounding the first floor terraces, winding staircases and sophisticated interior finishes and details.

The house was built from 1832 to 1834 by Jean-Charles Chapais, who is associated with the history and architecture of the building. While he occupied the house, Chapais contributed actively to the economic and cultural development of the Kamouraska region. Delegated to the Quebec Conference and a Father of Confederation; he was appointed to the Senate in 1868 and held the positions of Minister of Agriculture and Receiver General in the MacDonald administrations. His son, Sir Thomas Chapais, was knighted in 1935 for his work as a noted Canadian historian. He was also a lawyer, journalist, member of the Legislative Council of Quebec, and member of the Senate of Canada. Thomas Chapais was born and died in this house.

The heritage value of Chapais House can also be found in its architectural character, including its slightly curved bellcast roof, its large balconies surrounding the first floor, its winding staircases leading to the terraces, and its simply sculptured porticos. It also includes woodwork, joinery, refined finishes, as well as interior details that are exceptional for a house of this type.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Château De Ramezay / India House National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Château De Ramezay / India House National Historic Site of Canada is a private mansion situated on Notre-Dame Street east, in the Old Port of Montréal, Quebec. First constructed in 1705, the stone building was rebuilt after a fire in 1756. Surrounded by a small wall, the Château De Ramezay / India House is a one-and-a-half storey stone building to which was added an eastern extension with a conically- roofed tower in 1903. The site also contains the Governor's garden, which was constructed at the rear of the building in 2000.

The heritage value of the site resides in its political and mercantile affiliations. Château De Ramezay / India House was first built for Claude de Ramezay, who was the governor of Montreal from 1704 to 1724, and the acting Governor General of New France for three years (1714-1716). The construction of the building reflects the status and financial situation of Montreal's governors who built their own private mansions that French crown did not provide them.

From 1745 —1763, the building was used by the Compagnie des Indes occidentales as a base of operations, during which time it was rebuilt and enlarged after a fire in 1756. The trading company played an important role in Canada's economic life, benefiting from a monopoly on exported beaver pelts and on the imports of some textiles needed as exchange merchandise.

From 1773-1844, during the Lower Canada period, the Château de Ramezay became the official residence of the Governors-in-Chief of British North America, excluding the period of American occupation from 1775 to 1776, when it became the residence of successive American commanders. The importance of the site is thus exhibited in the continuity of its usage. In 1839, it housed the Executive Council and after 1849, the building was used for other government offices, courts of law and schools. In 1895, the mansion was converted into the headquarters and museum of the Antiquarian and Numismatic Society of Montréal.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Château Frontenac National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

In the château style, Château Frontenac is an imposing hotel with five brick and stone wings and a central tower erected in seven stages between 1892 and 1993. It is prominently located on a cliff overlooking the St. Lawrence River, within the Québec historic district.

The Château Frontenac was designated a national historic site because it is an excellent example of a Chateau-style hotel.

The Château Frontenac was the first of a series of Chateau-style hotels built by Canadian railway companies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to encourage tourists to travel on their railways. Popular with the travelling public for their elaborate décor and comfortable elegance, these hotels quickly became national symbols of quality accommodation.

The Château Frontenac was the prototype for the Chateau-style railway hotels that followed, and remained the purest expression of the Chateau style among the group. Its fortress-like design, derived from the medieval chateaux of France's Loire Valley and enhanced by its dramatic cliff-top location, expressed the prevailing romantic view of Quebec as a French medieval city. The hotel's picturesque eclecticism and rich polychromatic surfaces reflected popular taste in Victorian architecture. Construction began in 1892-93 for the Canadian Pacific Railway to designs by architect Bruce Price. The hotel was enlarged in 1908-09 to designs by W.S. Painter, in 1920-24 to designs by Edward and W.S. Maxwell, and in the 1990s by the Arcop Group.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, NHS-images, 1988
Christ Church Cathedral National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Christ Church Cathedral National Historic Site of Canada is a picturesque Gothic Revival building prominently located in the busy commercial district of Montréal, Quebec. With its cruciform plan, the building is composed of simple geometric volumes set beneath a steep gable roof with central tower and tall elegant spire. The west façade is distinguished by a rose window above a projecting triple portal entrance. An underground shopping centre is now situated below the property.

This Anglican cathedral, built between 1857 and 1860, is inspired by English architecture of the 14th century, and combines a highly rational and geometric composition with a picturesque handling of silhouette and massing. The original steeple, too heavy for the structure, was replaced by a lighter steel-frame, aluminium-clad version in 1940. Problems with the Caen stone facing also required adaptation from the original design. Badly deteriorated due to the severe climatic conditions, large portions of the exterior facing stone, particularly on the west end, were replaced with Indiana limestone in the 1920s. By the 1980s this too was failing and was restored using an artificial stone.

Christ Church Cathedral's architects were Frank Wills, whose mature skills are evident in the picturesque massing and the harmonious interior space but who died before construction began, and Thomas S. Scott who was then commissioned to carry out Wills' design. The interior has evolved over time to accommodate changes in use and liturgy: a large east window was added in the late 19th century and other stained glass has been donated over the years; the timber roof was decorated in 1906, along with the installation of a marble floor and, in the 1920s, a new altar and marble reredos were added, commemorating the congregation's war dead. In 1938, the north porch was converted to a children's chapel and in 1940, the south transept was changed into a memorial chapel. The north transept was redecorated as a baptismal chapel in 1985. Recently a choir loft has been constructed against the west wall.

The relatively elaborate design and decoration of the cathedral is, in part, a reflection of its congregation, who, in the past, were often high profile members of the Montréal's anglophone business establishment. They included investor George Moffat, David Kinnear senior partner and editor of the (Montreal) Herald, and Thomas Brown Anderson, who became president of the Bank of Montréal.

©Historic Services Branch / Direction des services historiques, 2003
Church of Notre-Dame-de-la-Présentation National Historic Site of Canada
Shawinigan, Québec

The Church of Notre-Dame-de-la-Defence National Historic Site of Canada is located in "Little Italy" in the northwest of Montreal where it is associated with the development of the Italian community. Constructed of stone on a Greek cross plan, the Romanesque Revival style church is finished in the Italian manner with an exterior featuring decorative brickwork and interior fresco decoration.

The Church of Notre-Dame-de-la-Defence was designated a national historic site of Canada in 2002 because since its construction in 1918-1919, this church has been closely associated with Canada's oldest Italian community, established in Montreal in the 1860s.

The building and its interior decorative program, executed in stages, is by artist Guido Nincheri who specifically designed the structure for an Italian Canadian parish. Recalling the Renaissance in Italy, walls and vaults are painted in true fresco. The vault of the apse, executed in 1927- 1933, displays bright colours and a rich iconography with numerous figures, many of which are portraits of contemporary Canadians and Italians. These features make the church a rare and eloquent expression of Canada's Italian community.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Rhona Goodspeed, 1996
Church of Saint-Léon-de-Westmount National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Church of Saint-Léon-de-Westmount National Historic Site of Canada is located in Westmount on the island of Montréal. The church possesses a remarkable decorative program including frescoes, stained glass windows, stonework, woodcarving and bronzework, all conceived by the artist Guido Nincheri. Based on a Latin cross plan, this Romanesque Revival church features an Italianate façade with bell tower.

The Church of Saint-Léon-de-Westmount features a splendid interior designed by the prolific and talented Canadian artist Guido Nincheri (1885-1973). His wall paintings are an outstanding example of mural decoration. Beginning in 1928, he executed these works in the wet-plaster "buon" fresco technique, a method of painting directly onto the fresh plaster rarely used in Canada, but mastered by Nincheri in Italy where he was born and trained. In this church, Nincheri combined architecture, stained glass, painting and sculpture to create one of his most remarkable masterpieces.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, J. Dufresne, 2004


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, J. Dufresne, 2004
Church of Sainte-Marie National Historic Site of Canada
Sainte-Marie, Québec

The Church of Sainte-Marie National Historic Site of Canada is located at the heart of Sainte-Marie, Québec. The church, the main façade of which overlooks Marguerite-Bourgeois Avenue, is bordered by Notre Dame Street on the west side, a parking lot on the east and the rectory on the south. The Church of Sainte-Marie is a romantic Gothic Revival style building, built in the 19th century in the shape of a Latin cross with a semi-circular chevet connected to an irregularly shaped sacristy.

The heritage value of the Church of Sainte-Marie lies in the fact that it is a fine example of a romantic Gothic Revival church, a concept expressed in its relatively simple exterior arrangement as well as its gothic components, which are simply applied to the surface of the building rather than being incorporated into the architecture. In contrast to the sober exterior of the church, the interior has an impressive décor, created by Charles Baillairgé and François-Édouard Meloche.

Inspired by the style of 14th-century English Gothic churches, the church opens to a grand, blue-and-gold interior, with boldly sculpted quatrefoils, rib arches and clustered columns. The modern-day interior is almost identical to that which Baillairgé created in his time, except for the painted décor that replaced the original white and gold. This décor, created by François-Édouard Meloche of Montréal, is the most striking aspect when one enters the church. Meloche excelled in trompe-l'oeil painting: he created the illusion of three-dimensional ornamentation on a two-dimensional surface. Meloche also painted the beautiful little grisaille paintings of the patriarchs of the Old Testament that hang over the gallery windows, as well as the four colour paintings in the choir depicting the life of the Virgin Mary.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Corossol National Historic Site of Canada
Sept-Îles, Québec

Corossol National Historic Site of Canada is an underwater site situated south of Île Manowin, near Corossol Island near the entrance of Baie des Sept Îles, Quebec. Its name refers to the ship belonging to the King of France, which sank in a storm in 1693 while en route to France. The site is comprised of a number of cannon, as well as several associated artifacts.

The scientific value of the wreck of the Corossol is based on its rarity and its antiquity. Its remains are the only ones in Canada that have been confirmed to date as being from the wreck of a 17th-century French vessel. It also serves as a significant contribution to the commemoration of Canada's little-known national maritime heritage.

The historical value of Corossol derives from its potential as a source of information on the material culture of New France in the 17th century. Documentary evidence indicates that the French King's vessel arrived in the colony in August 1693, and departed in October of the same year with fur pelts and passengers for France. A few days later it struck a shoal and sank, and its cargo was scattered along the coast. A salvage expedition in May 1694 was partly successful. Even though the old witness reports from survivors did not enable the wreck to be accurately located, the site was identified in 1990 from period documents, records of the salvage expedition, and from the discovery of such significant items as a 1691 French coin and various military artifacts attesting to the military role of the ship. Local place names also contributed to the identification of the wreck, as the remains were located between Île du Corossol and Île Manowin, previously known respectively as "Carroussel du Large" or "Petit Carroussel" and "Carroussel de terre" or "Grand Carroussel".

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, F. Cattroll, 1982
Coteau-du-Lac National Historic Site of Canada
Coteau-du-Lac, Québec

18th-century transportation and defence structures.

The Coteau-du-Lac National Historic Site is located 40 km southwest of Montréal on the shores of the St. Lawrence River, and offers a window on a particularly rich history going back several millennia in time.

Owing to its strategic position on the River, the main route into inland North America, this site has played a major role in the development of river transportation in Canada. At first a portage for nomadic Aboriginal peoples, Coteau-du-Lac later became a genuine bypass for travellers from Great Britain and France.

By the late 18th century, a lock canal is constructed on this location. It was the first work of its kind in North America and was to serve as a forerunner of the modern-day St. Lawrence Seaway.

Situated in the municipality of Coteau-du-Lac, Québec, on the shores of the St. Lawrence River, approximately 40 km southwest of Montreal, the Coteau-du-Lac National Historic Site of Canada comprises the remains of the canal, the fortifications, numerous archaeological vestiges, a replica of the 1813 bunker, and many installations for interpretation purposes.

Coteau-du-Lac's heritage value resides in the fact that it is the first lock canal in North America. Built between 1779 and 1781, the width of the canal was doubled between 1814 and 1817 to facilitate the passage of Durham ships. Two other locks that were better adapted to the needs of the canal then replaced the three original locks. Today, major modifications to the surrounding landscape have caused the water level to fall approximately 2.5 meters, which resulted from the construction, during the 1940s, of a dike and a dam upstream from the site.

Coteau-du-Lac was, from 1778 until the mid-19th century, the illustration of an important British military post whose function was to ensure the protection of the navigable corridor and ease the transport of merchandise. During that period, the site was equipped with new buildings such as fortifications, an octagonal bunker, an explosive magazine, a guardhouse, and various other buildings that reinforced its military role.

Coteau-du-Lac's heritage value also resides in the strategic roles it played in the American Revolution and in the War of 1812. Due to isolation and the difficulties in supplying the British military posts in the Great Lakes region, Coteau-du-Lac was built as a strategic defence point for the navigable corridor, thus easing the transportation of supplies as well as troops on the St. Lawrence River towards Upper Canada.

Finally, the strategic position of this canal made it a port of entry for imports to Upper Canada. Indeed, from 1797 and up to 1840, a customs office was in operation in Coteau-du-Lac. Fees were collected on wine, spirits and other imported goods into Upper Canada. The aim was to account for these goods in order to evaluate what part of the fees paid at the port of Québec were due to Upper Canada. The opening of such an office made Coteau-du-Lac the principal port of entry into Upper Canada.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, HRS 0838
Davie Shipyard National Historic Site of Canada
Lévis, Québec

Davie Shipyard National Historic Site of Canada is located on the St. Lawrence River waterfront close to the Québec-Lévis ferry terminal. The shipyard is bi-sected by rue Commerciale running parallel to the St. Lawrence River. A marine railway and floating dock are located on the river side, and three buildings are situated across the road. Together they constitute the rare cultural landscape of a shipyard of the wooden sailing ship era.

Davie Shipyard was the oldest shipyard in Canada in operational condition when it was commemorated in 1991. Established by former sea captain Allison Davie in 1829, upon his death it was managed by his wife, Elizabeth Davie, operating continuously as a shipyard until 1998. During that time, Davie Shipyard was responsible for several innovations important to sailing ship construction. The site today consists of a two-and-a-half-storey residence and office (1832), a single-storey brick stable (1872) and two-storey brick warehouse (1892) on the landward side of rue Commerciale, and on the river side, a patent slip (or marine railway), a floating dock, and possible underwater archaeological remnants.

The heritage value of Chantier Davie lies in its unique surviving representation of a shipyard of the wooden sailing ship era. Its value resides in the integrity of its components, together with their setting and, spatial disposition.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2002
de Salaberry House National Historic Site of Canada
Chambly, Québec

The de Salaberry House National Historic Site of Canada is located in front of the Chambly Rapids in Chambly, Québec. The site consists of a large, three-storey stone house representative of vernacular Montréal villas built in the early 19th century. The house includes a low hipped-roof featuring two gable dormers, two side chimneys and an imposing columned portico. It was constructed under the orders of Lieutenant-Colonel Charles-Michel d'Irumberry de Salaberry from 1814 to 1815. De Salaberry lived in the house until his death in 1829.

The de Salaberry House was constructed under the orders of Lieutenant-Colonel Charles-Michel d'Irumberry de Salaberry between 1814 and 1815. De Salaberry was known as "the hero of Châteauguay" for his role in rebuffing American troops under Major-General Wade Hampton's command at the Battle of Châteauguay on the 26th October, 1813. He lived in this house with his wife until his death in 1829.

The de Salaberry house is representative of vernacular Montréal villas built in the early 19th century. It is a large, three-storey stone house, which features two large parapeted chimneys and numerous casement windows. It is a rectangular, harmoniously proportioned building that makes use of cut stone building materials and exhibits common features of houses from the early 19th century, including the casement windows with plain trim and dormer window surrounds. It also features a classically detailed pediment and columns.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Michel Gagné, 2006
Droulers-Tsiionhiakwatha National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Anicet, Québec

Droulers-Tsiionhiakwatha National Historic Site of Canada represents an Iroquoian village complex, which, at the height of Iroquoian civilization in the St. Lawrence Valley, was the central place in a region that has yielded an impressive number of archaeological sites. Situated in south-western Québec, some eight kilometres from the St. Lawrence River, its geographical location makes it one of the most remote of the Iroquoian villages in Québec. This major archaeological site, discovered in 1994, was the subject of a campaign of six intensive digs, which produced over 150 000 archaeological remains, making it possible to deduce the presence of a series of longhouses.

Droulers-Tsiionhiakwatha is the largest paleohistorical village discovered to date throughout Québec. This site was occupied around the mid-15th century by a group now identified as the St. Lawrence Iroquoians. Particularly good soil conditions have allowed for the preservation of the village structures, including fireplaces, pits and trenches, which indicate the positions of some fifteen dwellings that date from the last three centuries before the arrival of the Europeans.

In terms of scientific data, Droulers-Tsiionhiakwatha ranks among the major sites documenting Iroquoian village life. Its unique situation makes it possible to properly document the use of plant species in the daily diet, since an appreciable quantity of bone objects and bone remains associated with cooking activities have been found in a remarkable state of preservation. Droulers-Tsiionhiakwatha has one of the most significant collections of domesticated and wild plants gathered on one site in eastern Canada. These remains indicate that when the site was occupied, the population used several ecosystems present on its territory. The remains demonstrate the strong dependence of this population on cultivated plant species, in addition to attesting to other activities such as farming, fishing and gathering small wild fruits.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, R. Goodspeed, 1997
Erskine and American United Church National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Erskine and American United Church National Historic Site of Canada is located in the Golden Square Mile of Montréal. Built in 1893-94, this Romanesque Revival style church contains stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany. The façade, crowned by a gable, includes a large demi-rose window above smaller windows framed by a massive central arch. Smaller towers balance the tall tower dominating the composition. The stonework is heavily rusticated.

Constructed in 1893-1894 to the designs of Montreal architect Alexander Cowper Hutchinson as the Erskine Presbyterian Church the richly textured exterior is a splendid example of the Romanesque Revival style influenced by Richardson. The interior is a finely executed example of a 19th-century amphitheatre plan altered in 1938-39 by architect Percy Nobbs to reflect the new values of the United Church. The Tiffany windows in the sanctuary and chapel date from 1903, and were installed in 1938-39 to form the most extensive group of Tiffany religious stained glass identified in Canada to date.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989
Étienne-Paschal Taché House National Historic Site of Canada
Montmagny, Québec

The Étienne-Paschal Taché House National Historic Site of Canada is located in the town of Montmagny, Quebec. This attractive one-and-a-half-storey wooden house was for many years home to E. P. Taché, remembered as one of the fathers of Confederation. Displaying elements of traditional Quebec architecture, the distinctive twin towers give the house a substantial appearance. This distinctive house stands in a residential area surrounded by more recent structures. The house also has been classified historic site by the Quebec ministère de la Culture, des Communications et de la Condition féminine.

The house was constructed for Étienne-Paschal Taché, a doctor who practiced medicine, before becoming a major figure in Canadian political history from the mid-1830s until his death in 1865. As Prime Minister of United Canada, Taché presided over the 1864 Quebec Conference and, although he died before Confederation had been achieved, he is remembered as one of the fathers of Confederation. Taché lived in the house for 35 years, raising 15 children.

The house exhibits elements typical of the Quebec "maison traditionnelle", including the rectangular plan, the medium-pitched, front-sloping roof, high basement, and heavy timber construction. Built in the late 1820s and enlarged in 1855 with an extension to the east and a north-east tower, the house was completed with a second tower in the 1880s. Interior detailing exhibits influences of British classicism. Many modifications were made to the house over the years, and it was partially restored in the late twentieth century.

©Natural Resources Canada / Ressources naturelles Canada
First Geodetic Survey Station National Historic Site of Canada
Chelsea, Québec

First Geodetic Survey Station National Historic Site of Canada is located on the south slope of King Mountain in Gatineau Park, Quebec. It was the first geodetic station established in Canada and consisted of a point, referred to as an "eccentric station," represented by a copper survey bolt, bearing lettering on its top surface, driven into the ground and secured with cement. The site is 2.3 square metres in area, approximately the same size as the former tower.

Geodesy is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the dimensions and shape of the Earth. When a network of geodetic points is established by "triangulation," it is possible to define the geometric structure of the Earth by measuring triangular elements. These geodetic points are copper bolts, often located on mountaintops to ensure intervisibility over distances of up to several tens of kilometres.

In 1888, the Association of Dominion Land Surveyors increased activities aimed at setting up a geodetic service in Canada. After years of research by Director William Frederick King and others, the first geodetic surveys were carried out in Canada, beginning in June 1905 at Kingsmere, in the National Capital Region. The first geodetic point (or geodetic station), named King MTN, was installed approximately 14 kilometres from Ottawa. The point was selected because it is the most visible from the federal observatory at the Central Experimental Farm. This geodetic point would not be long used because its visibility is unsatisfactory. A second point, called an "eccentric station" was selected in September 1909. This second point is located at an elevation 64 metres (211 feet) lower than the original station, and it became the point of reference. It is located at 45º 29' 20.56787" N, 75º 51' 45.26354" W.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Forges du Saint-Maurice National Historic Site of Canada
Trois-Rivières, Québec

Remains of Canada's first industrial village.

Not only Canada's first iron industry, but also its first industrial village, that is the Forges du Saint-Maurice National Historic Site's very essence.

On the shore of the Saint-Maurice River and bordered by a brook, the Forges combines cultural and natural treasures. In the Grande Maison it is possible to enter the universe of this original industrial community. The blast furnace reveals the mystery of iron-making. The archaeological remains are witnesses of this era where life of the whole community centered on the intense iron production.

Forges du Saint-Maurice National Historic Site of Canada is located fifteen kilometres north of the centre of Trois-Rivières, Quebec, on the banks of a stream that flows into the Saint-Maurice River. It is a cultural landscape that contains remnants of Canada's earliest industrial community. The site has been redeveloped for historical interpretation by Parks Canada Agency.

The heritage value of Forges du Saint-Maurice resides in the evidence of early colonial industrial activity, methods, and lifestyles reflected in its cultural landscape. Sieur François Poulin de Francheville, seigneur of Saint-Maurice established Forges du Saint-Maurice in 1730. The 252 remains on the site reveal traces of iron ore exploitation and an occupation which extends over 150 years (1732-1883), during which time Forges du Saint-Maurice was a major supplier of material goods necessary for the development of the colony and for its defence. The remnants of the Forges du Saint-Maurice provide the oldest and most complete example of a site with European ironworking technology typical of the end of the 15th century. From 1973, the site has been the subject of an extensive research and interpretation program conducted by Parks Canada Agency.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Forillon National Park of Canada
Headquarters: Gaspé, Québec

The "Jewel of the Gaspé" where land meets sea.

Located on the tip of the Gaspé Peninsula, Forillon Park is a mountainous area that borders on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay of Gaspé.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, N. Clerk, 1997
Former Montréal Custom House National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Former Montréal Custom House is an elegant, early nineteenth-century, two-storey, Palladian-style building, built of stone. It is located in the harbour area of Old Montréal, facing the St. Lawrence River, and surrounded by an area of offices, boutiques and restaurants. Since 1992, the Custom House has formed part of Pointe-à-Callière, the Montréal Museum of Archaeology and History, and is connected by underground passageway to other buildings in the museum complex.

The Former Custom House is a striking, Palladian-style building, distinguished by its elegant façades, compact proportions and architectural detailing. It was one of the last Canadian public buildings to use the Palladian style, a style derived from English domestic architecture which achieved the height of its popularity in Canada between 1800 and 1820. Despite an extension in 1881-2 in which the south façade was reconstructed and windows and doors were added to the side elevations, the Custom House retains the effect of its original exterior appearance.

The Former Montréal Custom House was the first Montréal building designed by John Ostell, a British-trained architect who was, in that era, Montréal's most important architect. Beginning with the Custom House, Ostell designed 25 of the city's major buildings in as many years, using a variety of styles. The 1881-2 extension was designed by Alphonse Raza.

The construction of the Former Custom House in 1836-8 marks an important moment in the history of the port of Montréal, when it acquired its own customs service. Until 1828, customs duties were collected at the city of Québec, as the principal port of entry to Upper and Lower Canada. During the early 19th century, the construction of the Lachine canal, improvements to marine transportation between Québec and Montréal, greater diversification in Montréal's economy, and increasing commercial traffic with Europe led to the rapid development of Montréal's port area. The significant increase in port traffic justified the collection of customs duties at Montréal beginning in 1828. The customs house was built soon afterwards, reflecting the new importance of the port of Montréal. It soon became the major Canadian port for the transshipment of goods to and from the Great Lakes and the exportation of primary products to Europe, a role it would retain until the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959. It served as Montréal's customs house from 1838 until 1871.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Jacques Pleau & Michel Pelletier, 2001
Former Shawinigan Aluminum Smelting Complex National Historic Site of Canada
Shawinigan, Québec

The Former Shawinigan Aluminum Smelting Complex National Historic Site of Canada is an early aluminum smelter and hydroelectric plants that supplied it with power. It is located at Shawinigan Falls on the Saint-Maurice River, at the southern end of the City of Shawinigan. The complex consists of 12 brick buildings on a high point of land overlooking the river, a hydroelectric power plant on the riverbank below, and the remnants of the foundations of a second power plant, also adjacent to the river. The buildings were erected between 1899 and 1927, and are in many cases adjoined or linked by passageways. Some buildings have been rehabilitated to serve as galleries and events venues, and are now open to the public.

The heritage value of this site resides in its historical associations as illustrated by the design of the complex, which integrated the manufacturing process with its source of energy and established a Canadian precedent for manufacturing complexes based on hydroelectric energy, and by its extant buildings, erected between 1899 and 1927, which date to a period when the complex was the only one of its type in the country. The complex was the site of several Canadian precedents in aluminum smelting. The first aluminum ingot cast in Canada was produced in Building 7 in 1901. The first aluminum cables in Canada were produced in Building 3 in 1902. The first aluminum conductor cables with steel centres (ACSR-type) in Canada were produced in Building 3 in 1910. The smelter operated until 1945.

The Shawinigan complex was the first aluminum smelter built in Canada. It is connected with the beginning of both the aluminum industry and the manufacture of aluminum products in Canada, as well as the early use of hydroelectric energy to support heavy industry. Aluminum production requires huge amounts of electric power to convert vats of powdery alumina to molten metal. The late 19th-century discovery of this metallurgical technology by the American inventor, Charles Martin Hall, coincided with the newfound ability to produce hydroelectric power from moving water.

At the invitation of the Shawinigan Water and Power Company, Hall and his company, the Pittsburgh Reduction Company (PRC), built the first Canadian aluminum production plant on the Saint-Maurice River, along with a power plant, and therefore successfully married the two technologies. The complex was operated by a subsidiary of PRC, the Northern Aluminum Company Limited, which later became the Aluminum Company of Canada Limited (commonly known as Alcan).

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Fort Chambly National Historic Site of Canada
Chambly, Québec

Restored and stabilized 1709 stone fort.

Fort Chambly is located at the edge of the Richelieu River, at the foot of the Chambly rapids. Built in 1711, this imposing stone fortification protected New France from a potential British invasion.

During the War of 1812, the British Army built an important military complex on the site. The fort has resisted the upheavals of history and remains a valued reminder of the French presence in North America.

Restored by Parks Canada, Fort Chambly now houses exhibitions showcasing key moments in the history of New France.

Fort Chambly National Historic Site of Canada is a square-shaped stone fortress strategically placed on the Richelieu River at Chambly, Quebec. The present structure is the fourth fort to have been constructed on the same site. Four prominent corner bastions and high curtain walls protect accommodation and storage facilities arranged around a central courtyard. Strongly built of stone the fort also features bartizans, embrasures and muskets loopholes. The fort stands within a large waterside park.

In 1665, French army officer Captain Jacques de Chambly directed the construction of the first wooden fort in Canada to control the invasion route and to support French troops against the Iroquois. The present stone fort, built between 1709-1711 to protect New France from British invasion, draws inspiration from European classical fortifications adapted to the particular geographical context of North America. Ceded to the British in 1760, the fort was temporarily occupied during the American invasion of 1775 before being recaptured by the British. It also played an important role during the war of 1812 and the rebellions of 1837-1838. The fort subsequently fell into disrepair and was abandoned in the mid-19th century. The intervention of Chambly inhabitant Joseph-Octave Dion played an important role in safeguarding the fort between 1875 and 1916. Designated a national historic site of Canada in 1920, Fort Chambly was restored by Parks Canada in 1983 and now houses a small museum and interpretation centre.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Fort Charlesbourg Royal National Historic Site of Canada
Cap-Rouge, Québec

Fort Charlesbourg Royal National Historic Site of Canada is located in Cap-Rouge, a residential suburb in the city of Québec. The site consists of the uncovered vestiges of two sixteenth-century forts: an upper fort on the treed promontory at the junction of Rivière du Cap-Rouge and the St. Lawrence River; and a lower fort situated approximately 500 metres to the northwest, on the banks of Rivière du Cap Rouge. Established in 1541 by Jacques Cartier, the forts served as the basis for the first French colony in North America, until they were abandoned in 1543.

Established in 1541 by Jacques Cartier on his third and final voyage to the French territory along the St. Lawrence River, Fort Charlesbourg Royal consisted of an upper fort and lower fort located near the mouth of Rivière du Cap-Rouge. The upper fort, constructed at an elevation of 40 metres, offered a strategic defensive position, while the lower fort provided a potential anchorage for ships, as it was sheltered from the strong winds coming off the river. The two forts possessed a total of three towers, and the upper fort was constructed of square logs. Charlesbourg Royal was named after Charles, Duke of Orleans, the third son of King Francis I of France, and was the home of Cartier and a group of some 400 colonists during the winter of 1541-1542. This period of occupation saw difficult relations with the local Aboriginal population, and many of the colonists suffered from scurvy.

In June 1542 Jean-François de la Rocque de Roberval, who had been appointed «Lieutenant-général au pays de Canada» in the previous year, arrived at the fort. That same month, Cartier decided to return to France, and Roberval took possession of the fort, changing its name to France-Roi. Archaeological evidence shows that Roberval modified some aspects of the fort to better suit the newer weaponry at his disposal. Roberval and a group of 200 colonists spent the winter in Canada, suffering from cold, famine, and disease. Although a ship was sent back to France to request assistance from the king, by summer 1543 the fort was abandoned. More than 60 years passed before another attempt was made to colonize the St. Lawrence region.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1924
Fort Crevier National Historic Site of Canada
Pierreville, Québec

A fort was built near here in 1687 for the defence of the French inhabitants of the area against Iroquois attacks which had been encouraged by the English. Originally named Fort Saint-François, it came to be known by the name of its builder, Jean Crevier in whose seigneurie, Saint-François-du-Lac, this wooden fort stood. Skirmishes between the Iroquois and French were fought near here on many occasions between 1689 and 1693. With the signing of peace treaties with the English in 1697, and with the Iroquois in 1700 and 1701, the French allowed the fort to fall into ruins.

©Google, 2010
Fort Laprairie National Historic Site of Canada
La Prairie, Québec

Fort Laprairie National Historic Site of Canada is located on the western bank of the St. Lawrence River in La Prairie, Quebec. The site consists of a 17th-century French Regime fort, of which there are no visible remains. Constructed in 1687, Fort Laprairie and its palisade, which enclosed some of the village buildings, served as a defensive outpost and as a refuge for settlers until 1713. The trapezoid shape of the fort influenced the formation and layout of lots and roads in what is now a residential area.

Fort Laprairie was designed in 1687 by Robert de Villeneuve and built the same year by Gédéon de Catalogne, both official engineers of the French colonial troops. The fort served as a defensive outpost for Montréal during the War of the Grand Alliance and the War of the Spanish Succession. From 1687 until the Peace of Utrecht in 1713, the fort was continuously garrisoned settlers took refuge inside the palisade on several occasions. For example, in August 1691, during the First Battle of Laprairie, the French defended the fort from an attack by New England Militia troops. The fort is reputed to have saved the lives of its occupants during this encounter. After withstanding numerous attacks by the English militia and the Iroquois, Fort Laprairie was largely destroyed when the Americans retreated following the Invasion of Canada in 1775.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Fort Lennox National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-Noix, Québec

Outstanding example of early 19th-century fortifications.

This old British fort is located on Île aux Noix, in the middle of the Richelieu River. No bridge connects this island, with its fabulous destiny. There isn't any choice: you have to leave your vehicle behind. The boat is how you get there! The children will love it. The crossing takes five minutes. Just long enough to cross the time barrier and tread the ground of an outstanding site.

Located a few kilometres from the Canada-U.S. border, the fort was built from 1819 to 1829. It consists of defensive works and of several masonry buildings of outstanding beauty. The site as a whole had the aim of protecting the colony from an eventual American invasion along the Richelieu River.

Fort Lennox National Historic Site of Canada is a highly evocative military fortification and landscape covering the full extent of Île aux Noix in the Richelieu River near the city of Saint-Paul-de-l'Île-aux-Noix, Québec. Over a critical period from the end of the French Regime to the 1870s, French, American and British forces exploited the strategic value of the site. The fortifications themselves are framed by a water-filled moat that surrounds the ramparts. Inside is a collection of handsome, classically designed buildings beautifully executed in stone.

Fort Lennox played an important role in the military history of Canada due to its strategic location along the Hudson-Champlain-Richelieu navigation route. The island's geography, with narrow channels and an elevated southern point, provided a natural defence system that was supplemented by military defensive works. The French first fortified the island in 1759 as a barrier to British invasion along the Richelieu River. In 1760, the British captured the island, just prior to the fall of New France. In 1775, American revolutionary forces used the island as a base for an attack on Canada. After their retreat in 1776, the British began fortifying the island to guard against further invasions. During the War of 1812 the fort was used to secure the border with the United States and to protect the Royal Navy base at Saint-Jean. The present Fort Lennox, the third set of fortifications on the island, was built from 1819 to 1828. It replaced the earlier fort and was garrisoned until 1870. Île aux Noix was also used, but not modified, by British forces during the uprising of the Patriots, the Fenian Raids, and the American Civil War. After the departure of the British garrison in 1870, the Canadian militia used the site for summer training until 1921. From 1940 to 1943 a refugee camp for European Jews was located on the island.

The historic place includes archaeological and built resources associated with each of the following periods of military occupation: the French fortifications (1759-1760); the period of American occupation (1775-1776); the first British occupation and installations (before 1778); the first British fortifications (1778-1812); the redevelopment of the British fortifications (1812-1819); the naval establishment (1812-1834); and the establishment and operation of Fort Lennox (1819 to present times).

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2005
Fort Longueuil National Historic Site of Canada
Longueuil, Québec

Fort Longueuil National Historic Site of Canada is an archaeological site located in urban Longueuil, Québec. The fort was demolished in 1810, and a church was built on its site. The site extends beneath present-day Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue Cathedral, constructed in 1887, as well as under Saint-Charles Street, Chambly Road, and adjacent buildings. Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue Cathedral contains stone building materials and elements salvaged from the original fort, and from the church that succeeded it.

Fort Longueuil was constructed between 1685 and 1690 as a fortified residence for Baron Charles le Moyne II, the only Canadian-born person to be raised to the rank of Baron by a French monarch. The home featured a vast yard, which was fortified with an enceinte and corner towers, designed to protect against any attack from Iroquois, with whom the French suffered a deteriorating relationship during the late 17th century.

Fort Longueuil was one of many fortified residences, known as châteaux-forts, belonging to local seigneurs that protected the French settlements around the Montréal area in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Though Fort Longueuil was the only stone château-fort on the mainland, it was designed to be defensible in tandem with those located on Montréal Island. Fort Longueuil was also the oldest stone château-fort on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River in the Montréal area.

It is believed that the fort was later occupied by American troops in 1775 and subsequently by the British. It was demolished in 1810 due to its poor state of repair. Its stones were re-used in a church that was built at the site between 1811 and 1814. This church was itself demolished in 1884 and, again re-using building material whenever possible, the present Saint-Antoine-de-Padoue Cathedral was completed in 1887.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Catherine Cournoyer, 2009
Fort Richelieu National Historic Site of Canada
Sorel-Tracy, Québec

Fort Richelieu National Historic Site of Canada is located within the limits of the city of Sorel-Tracy 91 kilometres northeast of the city of Montreal, Quebec. Situated on the eastern shore of the Richelieu River near where it meets the St. Lawrence River, the site marks the location of two forts of which there are no extant remains. The first, known as Fort Richelieu, was constructed in 1642 by the French as a strategic position and symbol of strength to the Iroquois with whom they were again at war. A second fort, Fort Sorel, was built on the site in 1665 by Captain Pierre de Saurel. An HSMBC plaque was erected in 1980 to mark the site.

Fort Richelieu was one of the earliest forts constructed in New France, established in 1642, at the mouth of the Richelieu River, by the Governor of New France, Monseigneur de Montmagny. The fort was established as a strategic position from which the French could counter Iroquois raiding parties who were using the Richelieu River as a route to put New France under severe military pressure and the fort was intended to block this approach. From its construction in 1642 until its abandonment four years later Fort Richelieu was also used a base for missionary efforts amongst the local population. The fort was abandoned in 1646 and the Iroquois burnt it down in the winter of 1647. A second fort was built on the site in 1665 by Captain Pierre de Saurel which was later named Fort Sorel.

©Library and Archives Canada / Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, C-001507, 1779
Fort Saint-Jean National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec

Fort Saint-Jean National Historic Site of Canada is located on the Richelieu River, about 40 kilometres southeast of Montréal, in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec. Built in the 18th century, remains of the early fort ramparts include the masonry foundations, piling impressions, and stockade trenches. Remains of the 1776 fort can also be seen on the site today, particularly the two bastions.

Between 1665 and 1666, the French erected five forts along the Richelieu River to counter Iroquois attacks. The location of the first Fort Saint-Jean, built in 1666 and abandoned in 1672, is unknown to this day. The French used the fort again after the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748, when a new fort was built in Saint-Jean by engineer Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry Jr.. The fort comprised a stockade built on piles, 3.5 to 4 metres tall (12 to 13 feet), flanked by bastions at each corner with firing slits for cannons. With the exception of its masonry foundation, all components of the fort were made of wood.

In 1760, the French abandoned and burned the fort, but the surrounding area remained sought after for its strategic location on route to Montreal. In the summer of 1775, during the American Revolution, the fort was once again rebuilt, this time to protect against the cannon fire of the American invasion. Styled after the model by Sébastien Le Prestre, Marquis de Vauban, the new fort withstood a 45-day siege led by the American General Richard Montgomery. Following the 1837 uprising, new fortifications were built on the site, which, since 1952, have formed the core of the Royal Military College Saint-Jean.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1969
Fort St-Louis National Historic Site of Canada
Kahnawake, Québec

Fort St-Louis National Historic Site of Canada is located on River Front Road in Kahnawake, Québec, within the Kahnawake Mohawk Territory. The site is delineated by three bare sections of wall from the original fortification, which dates from the early 18th century, that are approximately three metres high, and adorned with two bastions pointing northwest and southwest. The original eastern wall of the fortification cannot be seen today. The Caughnawaga Mission / Mission of St. Francis Xavier National Historic Site of Canada and the Caughnawaga Presbytery National Historic Site are located in the northeast section of the fort.

Jesuit missionaries founded the Mission of Caughnawaga at the French colony of La Prairie in 1667 for Iroquois Christians; however, it was displaced several times before coming to rest in Kahnawake. The different migrations of the mission were the result of economic influences; the agricultural methods of the Iroquois caused the depletion of nutrients in the soil, which required them to move their village every 10 to 15 years.

The presence of an Iroquois village contributed to the importance of building a fortification in Kahnawake. While there had been proposals for a fort to be built at that location since 1720, it was not until 1725 that a wooden palissade was constructed to serve as a defence for the village and the mission. In 1747, with the threat of war, the wooden palisade was partially replaced with a fortification made of stone.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2011
Fort Ste. Thérèse National Historic Site of Canada
Chambly, Québec

Site of French fort for defence against Iroquois, 1665.

Built in 1665, on the point south east beyond the canal, by M. de Salieres. One of the forts constructed on the Richelieu by the Carignan Regiment for defence against the Iroquois, starting point of the expedition of 1666. In June, 1760, Major Robert Rogers burned the fortified post.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2009
Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada
Ville-Marie, Québec

Remains of French fur trading post.

The first fort on this lake was bullt by the government of New France about 1685 to compete with the English on Hudson Bay. Closed in the 1690s Fort Temiscamingue was re-established in 1720 and leased to merchants until the fall of New France. After the Conquest various free traders settled on the lake, but the North West Company had a virtual monopoly by the 1790s, thanks to the astute management of Aeneas Cameron. Control of the fort remained with the Cameron family for many years after the union of the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies in 1821.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2009
Fort Trois-Rivières National Historic Site of Canada
Trois-Rivières, Québec

Fort Trois-Rivières National Historic Site of Canada is located on rue des Casernes in the town of Trois-Rivières in southern Québec near the three mouths of the Saint Maurice River. There are no visible remains of this 17th-century French Regime fort which was constructed in 1634 overlooking the St Lawrence River. This wooden fort became a centre for fur trade with the local First Nations and eventually developed into the settlement of Trois-Rivières. The site is now an open public space marked by an HSMBC cairn with grass and trees bounded by a road, a parking lot and a former post office.

Fort Trois-Rivières, a fort constructed by the French regime at Trois-Rivières, Quebec on the north side of the St Lawrence River, was established by the Sieur of Laviolette on behalf of Samuel de Champlain in 1634. The site was chosen for the strategic advantage it would offer both military and economic endeavours. The site was further down the St Lawrence than earlier forts and the fort itself was elevated from the river which offered natural protection as well as strategic control of the waterway. The original fort consisted of two buildings surrounded by a palisade. The original fort burnt down in December 1635 and was rebuilt on a larger scale and included a drawbridge to increase access. In 1653 the fort was proclaimed to be in ruins by Governor Lauzon and it was burnt to the ground. The site was also home to a Jesuit mission and other early buildings of the town of Trois-Rivières.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, R. Lavoie, 1999


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, P. St. Jacques, 1984


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, J.P. Jérôme, 1995
Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

4.6-km network of walls, gates and squares.

Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site commemorates the defence system developed between 1608 and 1871 in Québec, Canada's main stronghold during the colonial period.

The Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada comprises a number of sites associated with the city of Québec's historic defence systems. Its components are located in the city's Upper Town and Lower Town, along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River to the Montmorency River in Beauport and on the south shore of Lévis. The site includes the actual fortifications and certain components, such as doors, guard posts, powder magazines, storehouses, barracks, and military facilities, all built between 1608 and 1871, which contribute to the city's defence system.

Located on a plateau overlooking the convergence of the St. Lawrence and the St. Charles Rivers, the fortifications for the city of Québec began with the city's founding in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain. The original fortifications were makeshift works, built to meet the colony's most pressing needs. Resembling a medieval castle, Champlain's first fort, or Habitation, included a residence, merchandise and supply store, and a redoubt with elevated walls. Throughout the 17th century, this first habitation was replaced by a succession of rudimentary military works, including Fort St. Louis and Champlain's second Habitation. In 1690, the fall of Port Royal in Acadia led the French to properly fortify the city with its first enceinte, consisting of 11 redoubts joined by palisades. Although the Upper Town's steep cliffs acted as natural defences for two of its three sides, its vulnerable west side, which faced the open countryside of the Plains of Abraham, was made the top priority of Québec's fortification program. The initial enceinte was followed by a succession of modifications and additions until 1745 when, after the fall of Louisbourg to the British triggered a state of panic among Québec's inhabitants, a new enceinte laden with masonry was built, permanently enclosing the Upper Town's western boundary.

Shortly after the conquest of Canada in 1759, the British victors were faced with new defense requirements. Though the British feared an attempt by the French to recapture Québec, as well as an uprising from the Francophone population, they could not raise the funds to strengthen the city's defences right away. However, the Revolutionary War in America eventually spurred the construction of new fortifications. The British undertook a plan to strengthen and extend the 1745 enceinte around the entire city, build outworks in front of the enceinte to hamper the enemy's approach, build defense works on the Plains of Abraham, and erect a masonry citadel on Cap Diamant. This last phase was completed between 1819 and 1832. Incorporating existing 18th-century defence systems in its design, the Citadel's only real new fronts were those that faced the city, indicating that it was built, in part, to function as a British refuge in the event of a Francophone uprising. The completion of the Citadel marked the height of the city of Québec's role as a fortress.

The construction of detached forts on the south shore in Lévis in 1865 was followed by the departure of the British garrison in 1871. Although several structures of the fortifications have deteriorated or were demolished since then, the primary defences of the city have been preserved due to the late 19th-century intervention of Governor General of Canada Lord Dufferin (1872-1878). Today, the city of Québec is the sole surviving example of a fortified city in North America.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, HRS 0521
George Stephen House National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The George Stephen House is a large, stone Victorian mansion occupying the majority of its urban lot in downtown Montreal. It is presently operated as the Mount Stephen Club.

The George Stephen House was designated because it the best example of a Renaissance Revival house in Canada and because it was the home of George Stephen, president of the Bank of Montreal and of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the late nineteenth century.

The Renaissance Revival style design, opulent materials, and fine craftsmanship of this grand residential building reflect the economic and social position of George Stephen, a prominent businessman in late nineteenth century Canada.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1973
Governors' Cottage National Historic Site of Canada
Sorel-Tracy, Québec

The Governors' Cottage National Historic Site of Canada is located on the banks of the Richelieu River in Sorel, Quebec. Originally occupied as a summer residence by the early British governors and military commanders of Quebec, the one-and-a-half-storey house has a traditional Quebec-style rectangular core flanked by wings, all under steep, front-sloping gable roofs. To the rear, an open verandah looks out over gardens that were once part of a larger seigneury.

The Governor Sir Frederick Haldimand acquired the seigneury of Sorel for the Crown in 1781 for defensive reasons, as a result of the American invasion of 1775, and as an area where soldiers, Loyalists and their families could be settled. The same year, he had a house built for General Riedesel, the core of the present cottage, to which wings were added at a later date. In 1787, Prince William Henry, later King William IV of the United Kingdom (r. 1830-1837), spent time in the house during a visit to the colony. Until 1860, it was used as a summer residence by Governors General Dorchester, Prescott, Dalhousie, and Aylmer, and by Commanders-in-Chief St. Leger, Brock, Colborne, Jackson, D'Urban and Eyre. After a succession of owners, the town of Sorel acquired the house in 1921. In April 1990 the Governor's Cottage Exhibition Centre was inaugurated as a centre for artists.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, N. Clerk, November 1995
Granada Theatre National Historic Site of Canada
Sherbrooke, Québec

Granada Theatre National Historic Site of Canada is three storey building built up to the sidewalk facing Wellington Street in downtown Sherbrooke, Quebec. The Spanish Revival theme of the facade continues inside with splendid interior decoration evocative of a Spanish courtyard at night.

Granada Theatre was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1996 because it is a magnificent example of an atmospheric theatre in Canada.

The heritage value of the Granada Theatre resides primarily in the fabric, quality and richness of an interior decor that has remained virtually unchanged since the theatre was built.

Atmospheric cinemas typically employed painted decor, and this is a particularly spectacular one created by interior decorator Emmanuel Briffa. The Granada Theatre itself was designed by architect D.J. Crighton and built by the United Amusement Corporation in 1928-29. It served as a venue for cinema and live performance continuously to 1980, then was renovated as a multi-functional auditorium by the City of Sherbrooke in 1988.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2004
Grey Nuns' Hospital National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Grey Nuns' Hospital National Historic Site of Canada is situated in Old Montréal. Built in 1765, the three-and-a-half storey main building is an example of early French Canadian architecture and is the one surviving building of the Grey Nuns' Hospital complex. An attractive building constructed of solid masonry, it is austere in appearance and features an end gable roof, tall casement windows, a full basement, lateral additions and a centred rear wing. The interior stands empty with little remaining trim. To the rear are the remains of the walls of the original Chapel.

The main building was erected in 1765 on the site of the earlier hospital of the Frères hospitaliers. In 1747 the existing hospital had been entrusted to the care of Sainte-Marie-Marguerite d'Youville and the order of Grey Nuns in order to continue care for the sick. Gutted by fire in 1765 the building was rebuilt while two wings were added in the 19th century to meet demands for more space. In 1871 the Grey Nuns relocated to a different residence and in 1900 the north section of the complex and half of the chapel were demolished to permit the extension of Rue St. Pierre. From 1900 until 1973 the empty building was used intermittently for warehouse storage.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Grosse Île and the Irish Memorial National Historic Site of Canada
Grosse-Île, Québec

Quarantine station for immigrants from 1832-1937.

Located in the middle of the St. Lawrence River, Grosse Île was a quarantine station for the Port of Québec from 1832 to 1937. At the time, the island was the main point of entry for immigrants coming to Canada.

Grosse Île National Historic Site is located on an island of the same name in the St. Lawrence River. It is the site of a 19th and early 20th century quarantine station. Today it contains built, archaeological and cultural landscape resources that survive from this 1832-1937 period of use as well as a Celtic Cross erected in 1909 to commemorate the Irish immigrants who died there.

The heritage value of the site resides in the cultural landscape and its component parts that illustrate the process of immigration and quarantine of 19th century immigrants to Canada through the port of Quebec, particularly the Irish during the mid-19th century.

Among its residents was Dr. Frederick Montizambert, medical superintendent of the island during the last 30 years of the 19th century. His belief in the new science of preventative medicine (microbiology, epidemiology, disinfection, vaccinations) caused him to develop a new generation of Canadian quarantine stations which protected Canadians from the deadly epidemics that ravaged many parts of the world at the time.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
H. Vincent Meredith Residence National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The H. Vincent Meredith Residence National Historic Site of Canada is located in Montréal, Quebec. Built in 1896 of red brick with stone trim, this fine two-and-a-half-storey Queen Anne Revival-style mansion has an asymmetrical composition. Plain wall surfaces contrast with a band of decorative brickwork at eave level. A prominent tower with a conical roof provides focus and contrasts with the mass of the steep hipped roof with its dormers and very tall chimneys. Steps lead up to the main entrance set under an open porch.

H. Vincent Meredith Residence was designated a national historic site of Canada in 1990 because it is a particularly noteworthy example of the use of the Queen Anne Revival style in domestic architecture.

The house, with its elegant styling and spacious grounds, was typical of the many mansions built by Montréal's financial elite in the late 19th century in the area called the "Golden Square Mile". In this case the house, with its warm red brick, eclectic stylistic references, and whimsical composition with turrets, towers and lively roofline, is an outstanding example of the then-fashionable Queen Anne Revival style. The house was built in 1897 for Andrew Allen, a partner in the Allen Line Steamship Company by Montréal architects Edward and William Maxwell. From 1906 to 1941, it was the home of Sir Vincent Meredith, president of the Bank of Montréal, and his wife Isabella Allan. Sir H. Vincent Meredith died in 1929 and in 1941 Lady Meredith willed the large private house to the Royal Victoria Hospital for use as a nurses' residence. It was later acquired by McGill College. In 1990 the residence suffered a fire but was subsequently restored to its original appearance. It is currently used as the McGill Centre for Medecine, Ethics and Law.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 05440
Haskell Free Library and Opera House National Historic Site of Canada
Stanstead, Québec

Haskell Free Library and Opera House is not only located on Church St., Rock Island Québec, it is also situated on Derby Line, Rock Island, Vermont because this building straddles the border. It is an ornate stone two-storey Queen Anne Revival-style building with a three-storey tower that houses both a library and an opera house.

Haskell Free Library and Opera House was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1985 because the building straddles the Canadian-American border and accommodates at one time a library and an opera house.

Haskell Free Library and Opera House was donated for the use of the residents of both countries in memory of American sawmill owner Carlos Haskell and his Canadian wife Martha Stewart Haskell by their family. Designed by architect James Ball and Gilbert H. Smith, and built 1901-1904, it testifies to the late Victorian belief in the intellectual and moral benefits of education and the arts. Its Queen Anne Revival style is typical of public libraries of the time. The second storey opera house has an ornate interior that seats 500 people and follows the accepted principles of 19th century theatre design. The building continues to serve its original functions.

The heritage value of Haskell Free Library and Opera House National Historic Site of Canada resides in its unusual location, its dual function and the long-term sense of community and goodwill they symbolize. The values are expressed by the impressive aesthetic design of the building, its details, composition and materials, as well as in the functional design of the interior, its detail composition and materials. The building's site and setting are critical to its value.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Havelock Township Hall National Historic Site of Canada
Havelock, Québec

Havelock Township Hall National Historic Site of Canada is a simple, stone township hall, built in 1868, with a two-storey open hall plan. It sits on an isolated lot on a rural road in the township of Havelock, Québec.

The residents of Havelock were among the first in the St. Lawrence Valley to avail themselves of rural municipal status following the passage of enabling legislation in 1855. In 1868 Sanders and Kirkland erected this hall based on a design of Charles Gordon to accommodate council meetings and various social gatherings. Although its two-storey open-hall plan is typical of many rural town halls built in l9th century Canada, the carefully detailed stone construction and classically inspired proportions are exceptional and reflect the pride and community spirit of the municipality it was built to serve.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, C. Desmeules
Henry-Stuart House National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Henry-Stuart House is a small, romantic 19th-century brick cottage set in a picturesque garden at 82 de la Grande Allée West, Quebec City. The irregular, 1,528.3 sq. m site survives as an oasis of the past in a prestigious urban residential area.

The heritage value of Henry-Stuart House lies in its illustration of 19th and early 20th-century bourgeois aesthetics and lifestyle in urban Quebec. In this case, the aesthetic reflects the picturesque sensibilities favoured by British settlers. These values are carried by specific elements of the grounds, house, and furnishings that have survived from the 19th century. Henry-Stuart House was built by a Quebec entrepreneur for his daughter, Mary (or Maria) Curry Henry in 1849. In 1918 it was purchased by the sisters Adèle-Maud and Mary-Lauretta Stuart who continued to own the house until Adèle's death in 1987. In the almost 70 years they owned the property, the Stuart sisters restored and supported its 19th-century picturesque character. In 1997, the Conseil des monuments et sites du Québec purchased the property in 1997 in order to preserve it as a public resource.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Hersey Pavilion National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Located on the campus of the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, the Hersey Pavilion National Historic Site is a splendid surviving example of the type of purpose-built nurses' residence dating from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is a large, institutional design, designed in a Châteauesque manner, of Montreal limestone, featuring the picturesque historicist details of the time, such as grouped windows, steeply pitched room with dormers, and elaborate mouldings.

The Hersey Pavilion of the Royal Victoria Hospital was one of the first purpose-built nurses' residences in Canada. It provided facilities for study and learning, and it provided residential accommodation in the form of bedrooms, sitting rooms and a dining hall. This building, as well as other nurses` residences erected in the country at this time, reflected the growing professionalisation of nursing.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, ca. 2005
Hochelaga National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Hochelaga National Historic Site of Canada is a cultural landscape recalling a former Iroquois village, consisting of a grass-covered space about 79 square metres in area. The site is located to the left of the main entrance of McGill University on Sherbrooke Street, Montreal.

Hochelaga National Historic Site of Canada represents the old Iroquois village of Hochelaga. The village is mentioned in the logbook kept by Jacques Cartier on his second voyage to the region of the St. Lawrence River in 1535. The village no longer exists, and its exact location is unknown.

The historical value of Hochelaga National Historic Site of Canada derives from its association with the Iroquois village of Hochelaga. According to Cartier's log for October 1535, the palisaded village was home to about 1500 Iroquois living in some 50 longhouses approximately 8 metres high and of varying lengths, with groups organized according to maternal family ties. A subsequent French expedition in 1600 noted that the village of Hochelaga was abandoned. This coincided with the departure of all the Iroquois from the St. Lawrence Valley after they were excluded from new trading alliances between the French and the Montagnais, Algonquin and Huron nations. To consolidate their fur trade relations, the French became hostile toward the Iroquois, resulting in their departure.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1980
Holy Trinity Anglican Cathedral National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

This relatively small and simple stone church occupies a central location on the place d'Armes within the old city of Quebec. Sited behind low stone walls within a treed green space, the cathedral is set apart from the surrounding tightly built urban fabric. Its simplified Palladian exterior and elegant interior speaks strongly to its British roots.

Holy Trinity Anglican Cathedral was designated a national historic site because it is a very fine, well-sited and largely unaltered example of the auditory hall type of church and because its construction heralded the introduction of the British classicism to Quebec City.

Built between 1800 and 1804 by two Royal Artillery engineers, Captain William Hall and Major William Robe, the refined Palladian style design was adapted from St. Martin-in-the-Fields in London and features a rectangular plan, tripartite nave with lateral galleries and Palladian-inspired decorative elements including a three-bay, pedimented facade divided by arcading with Ionic pilasters. The cathedral has suffered only minor changes, some of which include embellishment of the facade by Quebec architect Francois Baillargé. Sited on former Récollet property, the cathedral occupies a central location within the old city, a designated World Heritage Site.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, CIS-2003/EIC-2003
Hôpital-Général de Québec Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Hôpital-Général de Québec Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada is located in the Saint-Roch and Saint-Sauveur quarters of Québec City's Lower Town, on the grounds of l'Hôpital-Général de Québec. This cemetery landscape was designated to commemorate soldiers who died as a result of the battles of the Plains of Abraham and Sainte-Foy.

Hôpital-Général de Québec Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada consists of the small central part of a much larger cemetery, which was established in 1755-1760. This central section contains the earliest graves, of which 277 are those of soldiers interred in the cemetery from the Battles of the Plains of Abraham and Sainte-Foy. Some 277 are identified by gravestones, the remaining 747 died of illnesses contracted during the course of the Seven Years War after these battles. The names, birthplaces, and sometimes the ages of these 1,058 Aboriginal, French-Canadian, French and British soldiers are recorded in the first parish register of Notre-Dame-des-Anges. The cemetery was named "the Cemetery of Heroes" by archivist Pierre-Georges Roy in 1940.

The heritage value of the site lies in its role as a memorial to the French-English struggle for supremacy in North America in colonial times. Its value is amplified by knowledge about the identity and socio-cultural profiles of these soldiers, knowledge recorded in the first parish register of Notre-Dame-des-Anges, itself a rare manuscript record.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Michel Pelletier, 2004
Hôtel-Dieu de Québec National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Hôtel-Dieu de Québec National Historic Site of Canada is a large religious complex and hospital located in the heart of Old Québec, Québec. Founded in 1637, it is now one of the most important hospitals in Quebec. The site includes interconnected structures that range in date from 1695 to 2001. The vaulted cellars that support the three-storey wings were built in 1695. Stone walls surround an adjoining Augustine cemetery, monastery, garden and cloister. Opened in 1803, the hospital chapel had its interior and façade remodelled in later years by Thomas Baillairgé.

The Duchess D'Aiguillon founded the Hôtel-Dieu de Québec on August 16th 1637. The Augustines, Hotel-Dieu's religious community, came to the City of Québec in 1639 to establish a hospital to provide physical and spiritual comfort to those in need. In 1644 they moved to the Hôtel-Dieu de Québec's present site. The Hôtel-Dieu de Québec quickly became the main civil and military hospital of New France. The complex gradually evolved incorporating new additions and in 1855 was designated a university hospital. In 1995 the Hôtel-Dieu de Québec merged with two other hospitals to become the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec. The Augustine Nursing Sisters remain at the Hôtel-Dieu de Québec monastery.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Daniel Laroche
Île aux Basques National Historic Site of Canada
Trois-Pistoles, Québec

Île aux Basques National Historic Site of Canada is a long, narrow island located five kilometres north of Trois Pistoles on the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec. Two kilometres long by 400 metres wide, the island supports a mixture of woods, prairie and marshland while the surrounding shoreline features sheltered bays and sandy beaches. Archaeological remains at four sites reveal evidence of Aboriginal activity from both the pre-contact and post-contact periods. Three more sites show evidence of occupation by French Basque fishermen between 1584 and 1637.

Occupied successively by Aboriginal groups, Basque sailors, Jesuit missionaries, and homesteaders, Île aux Basques bears witness to many centuries of human activity. Archaeological remains have been discovered at seven sites in the southern part of the island. The Aboriginal presence may have consisted of small groups visiting for short periods on a seasonal basis while hunting, fishing and gathering. Harsh climatic conditions may also have limited the French Basque occupation of the island to sporadic, seasonal visits during the warmer months. The island represents the eastern limit of the Iroquoian presence in the southern Saint Lawrence area and also contains the largest concentration of Basque sites in the St. Lawrence estuary. The island was occupied by French Basques, in contrast to Red Bay National Historic Site of Canada, which was occupied by Spanish Basques. The island is the only Basque settlement in the estuary where contact between Europeans and Aboriginals is supported by archaeological evidence. It is now a protected area designated a sanctuary and refuge for migrating birds.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Île d'Orléans Seigneury National Historic Site of Canada
L'Île-d'Orléans Regional County Municipality, Québec

Île d'Orléans Seigneury National Historic Site of Canada occupies the entire Île d'Orléans, and includes all surviving built, landscape and archaeological resources from the seigneury that existed there during the French Régime. Located just off the north shore of the St. Lawrence River, near the city of Québec, Île d'Orléans was one of the earliest settled areas of New France. The farmlands are laid out in long, narrow strip plots that extend back from the water, while settlement are linked by the chemin Royal that encircles the island. The surviving houses, outbuildings, windmills, churches, and farmlands illustrate the long-settled history of the island.

The Île d'Orléans Seigneury was created in 1636 and developed during the 17th century with the construction of a main road encircling the island and the addition of several intersecting roads. The gently rolling land with its many streams provided good farmland. Numerous seigneurs governed the island over the years, with many tenant farmers working under them, leaving a rich collection of managed farmlands, built and archaeological resources. The farms are laid out with fields in long, narrow strips, extending back from the water's edge and meeting at a point in the centre of the island. Houses with their outbuildings were usually built on the landside of the chemin Royal, looking toward the river. The early division of the island into five parishes (Saint-Pierre, Sainte-Famille, Saint-Francois, Saint-Jean, et Saint-Laurent) reflected its varied geographic characteristics and resulted in the construction of a church to serve each, with processional chapels between.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Île-Verte Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada
Notre-Dame-des-Sept-Douleurs, Québec

Île-Verte Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada is an attractive 12 metre high cylindrical stone lighthouse, with an octagonal painted metal lamp, situated on an island in the St. Lawrence River opposite the mouth of the Saguenay River. Its isolated setting contains not only the tower, but a lightkeeper's residence, a fog horn building, an oil shed and a small powder magazine.

The heritage value of Île-Verte Lighthouse lies in its age and its high level of architectural conservation. Construction of Île-Verte Lighthouse was approved in 1806 and completed in 1809. The tower was designed and built by Edward Cannon, master mason of the city of Québec. Its purpose was to guide ships in the dangerous waters and currents of the St. Lawrence River at the mouth of the Saguenay River. For 137 years, from 1827 to 1964, this lighthouse was operated by four generations of the Lindsay family. The only alterations to the building have been the application of wood siding over the rubblestone walls (initially in the form of clapboard in the 1850-1870 period, then later as vertical siding), replacement of the original light with an automated one in 1969, and replacement of original windows, inner ground floor door, facing and metal hoops by the Canadian Coast Guard during restoration in 1983.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Jardins de Métis National Historic Site of Canada
Grand-Métis, Québec

The Jardins de Métis National Historic Site of Canada is an English-inspired garden created by Elsie Reford from about 1926 to 1958. The property, which covers approximately 18 hectares (45 acres) of land, is located on the banks of the St. Lawrence and Métis Rivers between the towns of Mont-Joli and Matane, near Sainte-Flavie, Quebec. The site includes one villa and six distinct garden areas and more than 500 horticultural varieties.

Jardins de Métis is an excellent Canadian example of an early-20th century English-inspired garden. The gardens were created by Elsie Reford from about 1926 to 1958 on the grounds of a summer home given to her by her uncle, George Stephen, founder of the Canadian Pacific Railway and Canada's leading entrepreneur of the 19th century. Originally a fishing lodge, Mrs. Reford created the gardens from a rough landscape, taking full advantage of the site's favourable microclimate and its sublime views. The site now includes specialized gardens, winding paths, an allée royale and a variety of flower beds arranged in an informal manner.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2002
Joffre Roundhouse (Canadian National) National Historic Site of Canada
Charny, Québec

Joffre Roundhouse (Canadian National) National Historic Site of Canada is a massive railway engine repair facility situated in the Canadian National Railway Company yards in Charny, Quebec. Its hollow, circular form is reflective of its function as a railcar roundhouse.

As part of the Intercolonial Railway (ICR), a railway designed to connect the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to the rest of Canada, an essential provision for the maritime colonies' entrance into Confederation, the Joffre Roundhouse (Canadian National) was the second busiest divisional points on the system. It was originally constructed as a 24-stall roundhouse to service ICR engines at the Charny depot in 1880. From 1920 to 1921, Canadian National Railway (CNR) added fifteen stalls to the earlier structure thereby creating a full circle, apart from one access opening. Its facilities also include a machine shop and a still-functioning turntable, both added between 1920 and 1921. The Joffre Roundhouse (Canadian National) continued to fulfill its original function until 1981, when the CNR moved all diesel maintenance in the province out of Charny.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1982
Joliette Court House National Historic Site of Canada
Joliette, Québec

Joliette Court House National Historic Site of Canada is a stately, two-storey, stone building in the Neo-classical style. It was constructed from 1860 to 1862 as a combined court house, registry office and jail. The building is comprised of the original, symmetrical central block with a jail wing to the rear, a sympathetic, two-storey addition built in 1916, and two annexes added in 1960-1961.

The Joliette Court House is a particularly fine and well-preserved example of a Neo-classical public building. It was constructed from 1860 to 1862 for what was then called "le village de l'Industrie" by the government of united Canada, as one of about 28 court houses in Lower Canada. The court house follows a standardized building plan created by F. P. Rubidge, architect for the Department of Public Works of united Canada, for 14 courthouses in Lower Canada built between 1859 and 1863. It features a court room at the centre of the main floor flanked by a jury room on one side and rooms for judges, lawyers and petit jury on the other. The second storey of the main block was used for offices. A rear wing, constructed as a prison, was divided into cells.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2002
Joly de Lotbinière Estate National Historic Site of Canada
Sainte-Croix, Québec

The Joly de Lotbinière Estate National Historic Site of Canada occupies Pointe Platon, a large peninsula on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec. Founded in 1851 by Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbtinière, an influential Canadian politician and Lieutenant Governor, this 337-acre manorial-style summer estate consists of a large house with landscaped park, specialist gardens and support structures. Designed in the picturesque manner, the estate places an emphasis on the informal and natural. Walkways lead through a succession of gardens containing indigenous and exotic species complemented by lawns, pools and carefully placed trees.

The Joly de Lotbinière family played an important role from the seigneurial period onwards. Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, who inherited the estate in 1860, became one of the outstanding politicians of the 19th century, as well as being a remarkable botanist and scientist of that period. The design of the grounds accommodated extensive specimen planting and the establishment of exotic species. Henri-Gustave was also a pioneer of forestry and established a tree collection. The main residence exhibits characteristics of a summer residence including large windows that maximize views of the natural surroundings, and extensive galleries to provide an agreeable transition to the exterior. His grandson inherited the estate and developed the gardens after 1908. Their style is partly English and partly French. The house and the garden have been in public ownership since 1984 and the estate is now open to the public.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2008.
L'Isle-Verte Court House National Historic Site of Canada
L'Isle-Verte, Québec

The L'Isle-Verte Court House National Historic of Canada stands in the small municipality of L'Isle-Verte, located on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River. This small yet elegant court house is located on St-Jean-Baptiste Street, which extends the full length of the community and connects the main institutions and residences. Built in the Regency or English cottage style, it is a dignified one-and-a-half-storey symmetrical, wood-frame building with evenly spaced openings and a truncated pyramidal roof with belvedere.

Erected in 1859-1860, the L'Isle-Verte Court House is a rare example of a purpose-built circuit court building. Prior to Confederation, the province of Québec was divided into 21 judicial districts with high and lower courts. The circuit courts travelled to the various localities on a fixed schedule, providing small communities with access to the courts system of the province.

The L'Isle-Verte Court House was designed in the Regency style, an element of the Picturesque movement of the first half of the 19th century. This style, favoured for Québec residences, was rarely used for public buildings. Designed by Benjamin Dionne in the tradition of local residential architecture, the modest courthouse in the village of L'Isle-Verte contained offices for judges, legal counsel, and the clerk of the court on the same floor. The lantern and rooftop terrace that alludes to the domes erected on more imposing public edifices gives the courthouse an official appearance. The building's simple yet elegant design was perfectly suited to its original purpose, which was that of both part-time courthouse and community hall. It is an excellent example of vernacular architecture adapted to official use.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, B. Violette, 2002
La Corne Nursing Station National Historic Site of Canada
La Corne, Québec

La Corne Nursing Station National Historic Site of Canada is located in La Corne, in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Québec. It was built in 1940 and comprises two wooden buildings painted in white, the dispensary-residence, a two-storey building with a front veranda, and a garage. A summer kitchen is located at the south-west corner of the premises. The nursing station has a rear courtyard where the tree line marks the western limit of the property. The nursing station has also retained its furniture and houses an ethnological collection directly associated with the site's history.

The La Corne Nursing Station is one of the best preserved of the network of 174 nursing stations created in Québec between 1932 and 1975. For 50 years, from 1940 to 1990, the same nurse, Gertrude Duchemin, who retired in 1976, lived at the La Corne Nursing Station. Her long residence in the building helped to preserve the site's integrity and enabled the conservation of the furniture as well as an ethnological collection directly associated with the site's history. Because of its physical integrity, the La Corne Nursing Station is an excellent example of a nursing station residence built in Québec and implemented in newly colonized regions by the Service médical aux colons (SMC) during the Great Depression. Three models of nursing station residences were built. The La Corne Nursing Station was built in the years 1930-1949 according to the first model, which was also the most common, and is comprised of a two-storey wooden building with an attached garage and an adjacent summer kitchen.

The nursing station also symbolizes the contribution of the network created by the SMC to the development of healthcare services in Québec's remote areas. These nursing stations contributed to the genesis of the socio-sanitary infrastructure of many rural regions in Québec and nurses played a key role. The nursing station served both as the nurse's workplace and residence consisting of a nurse's office, waiting room, kitchen, living room, bathroom and bedrooms on the second floor, hence the term "dispensary-residence." Nevertheless, nurses had to travel great distances to serve the settlers. They took on many responsibilities, including promoting public health, monitoring the outbreak of contagious diseases, caring for the poor, delivering babies, and extracting teeth.

The La Corne Nursing Station illustrates the fundamental role played by these nursing stations in the development of communities and in the colonization process of the Abitibi region. Nurses like Gertrude Duchemin played an essential role in the development of Québec's regions, particularly in Abitibi-Témiscamingue.

©Québec City / Ville du Québec, 1997
La Fabrique Historic District National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

La Fabrique National Historic Site of Canada is located in the Saint-Roch district in Québec. Formerly an industrial building it now houses the offices of Québec's land-use planning and economic development services and the Université of Laval School. This striking building fronts on Charest Boulevard East and is constructed of red brick. It features ornamental white brick trim, medieval-inspired square towers, and rich ornamentation.

La Fabrique is valued for its significant role in Canada's clothing industry. It began as the Argenteuil Paper Manufactory, built in 1804 by two American paper makers, Walter Ware and Benjamin Wales. By making paper from cloth rags, the mill supplied wrapping paper and newsprint largely to the Montréal market from 1805 to 1834. For much of this time it was under the control of James Brown, Montreal stationer and founder of the present "Montréal Gazette". The mill, in the municipality of Saint-André-Est (now Saint-André-d'Argenteuil), Québec, was the first and for many years the only paper mill in what is now Canada. The origins of Canada's pulp and paper industry may be traced to its establishment. Its time as the Dominion Corset has further cemented its place in Canadian industrial history. In 1964, a modern addition was constructed in the International style. Rehabilitated and partly reconstructed in 1992-93, the building now includes an atrium and a renovated and subdivided interior.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Geneviève Charrois, 2005
La Malbaie Historic District National Historic Site of Canada
La Malbaie, Québec

La Malbaie Historic District National Historic Site of Canada is nestled in the mountainside of a narrow, eight-kilometre long strip of land overlooking the St. Lawrence River, in Quebec's Charlevoix region. One of the oldest villégiature areas in the country, this designated site includes over 200 main and subordinate buildings dating primarily from the Golden Age of villégiature, from 1880 to 1930, as well as more recent components. Most of the main buildings are directly associated with the villégiature because of their use as hotels/restaurants, residences and recreation-related sites. La Malbaie Historic District is also characterized by its numerous panoramic vistas of the river and its winding roads, along which wooden cottages can be found.

The historic value of La Malbaie Historic District's historic value is mainly based upon its function as a villégiature resort. Its use and historical ties are associated with this social phenomenon, which characterized Canada from the mid-1800s until about 1930. La Malbaie was one of the first areas to host vacationers. With the growth of maritime transportation, this phenomenon quickly took hold, transforming the rural, isolated nature of the place. As a result, La Malbaie became a very exclusive resort, offering all that was essential to its reputation, including an incomparable setting and location, as well as many resources made available to vacationers.

In its early days, the villégiature coincided with the appearance of a bourgeoisie arising from the industrial revolution and the socio-economic changes that ensued. At that time, sea bathing and fresh country air became a solution to the unhealthiness of cities, as such natural spaces were beyond rapid industrialization. Vacationers stayed in lovely summer homes along des Falaises Road and regularly went to the Manoir Richelieu for grand receptions. Still today, many resources bear witness to the significance of La Malbaie during the entire Golden Age of villégiature in Canada. With its man-built and landscaped heritage, La Malbaie Historic District still represents a showplace for Canadian villégiature.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
La Mauricie National Park of Canada
Headquarters: Shawinigan, Québec

Lakes winding through forested hills for canoe and portage activities.

Located in the Laurentian mountain range, La Mauricie National Park is a 536-km2 natural conservation area intended as a representative sample of the southern part of the Canadian Shield.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2007
Lachine Canal National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Operational canal; five locks, railway / road bridges.

Lachine Canal National Historic Site of Canada is an early 19th-century canal, 14 kilometres in length, built to circumvent five kilometres of white water on the St. Lawrence River between Lachine and the old port on Montréal Island, at the level of McGill street. It is now a recreational waterway running through the south-central part of the city of Montréal.

The heritage value of the Lachine Canal lies in the layout of the canal and the illustration of its historic role in the development of the country and of the city of Montréal. The Lachine Canal was built as a commercial canal in 1825-26 and was operated and upgraded continually as a commercial and industrial route until it was transferred to Parks Canada in 1978 for tourism development.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Catherine Cournoyer, 2005
Last Post Fund National Field of Honour National Historic Site of Canada
Pointe-Claire, Québec

Last Post Fund National Field of Honour National Historic Site of Canada is located in the west end of Montreal Island, in Pointe-Claire, Quebec. Inaugurated in 1930, this military cemetery was created to provide a burial service for veterans who died in a hospital or a public establishment after their military service. Marked at the entrance by the Remembrance Gate that houses a chapel, the cemetery was designed on an axial plane with a Beaux-Arts inspired centre line, revolving around roundabouts. It has approximately 9,500 pink granite gravestones arranged flat on the ground, side-by-side in rows, and a number of commemorative monuments that, in the sober landscape, accentuate the solemn military character of the location.

Founded in 1909, the Last Post Fund was a charitable organization that became a partner-agency to the Department of Veteran Affairs Canada, handling the burial of Canadian veterans. It is a pillar of the veteran community, administering a government program to which it contributes a growing share through activism, as demonstrated by its actions to honour with dignity the men and women who served Canada. The Last Post Fund provided a honourable burial for over 100,000 veterans and their family members throughout the country.

The cemetery is an obvious example of military tradition as demonstrated by the choice of the Beaux Arts style layout characterized by symmetry, simplicity and regularity. Burials, generally with two veterans per grave with officers and soldiers resting side by side, are marked by granite headstones engraved with standard inscriptions. Like the landscaping, the commemorative monuments also help to establish the solemn military character of the site, particularly by evoking the symbols associated with the classical tradition of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC).

Designed as a monument to the memory of all the soldiers who honourably served the nation, the National Field of Honour evolved over time. Soldiers from practically all conflicts now rest there, beginning with the soldiers of the British garrison posted in Montréal in the 19th century. The place names accentuate the commemorative character of the site, recalling important people, events and battlefields in Canadian military history.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Jocelyne Cossette, 1997
Le Boutillier Manor National Historic Site of Canada
Gaspé, Québec

Le Boutillier Manor National Historic Site of Canada stands sentinel at Anse-au-Griffon in the Gaspé region of Quebec. The Manor, characterized by its appearance and style, as well as its construction and building materials, is a fine example of 19th-century vernacular architecture in Quebec. The house has a symmetrical façade, a gable roof and an upturned, bell-cast eave that evokes an attractive and harmonious whole.

Built between 1850 and 1860, Le Boutillier Manor clearly stands out from the simple fishermen's houses found along the Gaspé coast. It was the second home of businessman, politician and magistrate John Le Boutillier, as well as an office for the managers of his fishing outport at Anse-au-Griffon. The house has a bell-cast eave and a neo-classically inspired design, expressed in its elegant shapes, symmetrically organized façade and uncluttered interior decor. The bell-cast eave of this attractive and unusual manor makes it an example of a particular style of Quebec vernacular architecture, of which very few examples have survived.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2001
LeBer-LeMoyne House National Historic Site of Canada
Lachine, Québec

LeBer-LeMoyne House National Historic Site of Canada is a 17th-century former fur trading post located on a small headland beside the Lachine Canal on the grounds of the Lachine Museum in Montreal. Both the main and subsidiary buildings are modest fieldstone structures with steeply pitched roofs.

LeBer-LeMoyne House National Historic Site of Canada was built for Jacques LeBer and Charles LeMoyne as a fur trade post in 1669-1671. They operated the post until 1685. In 1689 the house was damaged by fire, and its trading location was abandoned in 1695. Between 1695 and 1946, LeBer-LeMoyne House was subject to a series of renovations for use as a residence. The City of Lachine acquired it in 1946 and renovated it as a museum. Today the property consists of the house proper, its rear annex and the dépendance outbuilding, a separate utility building constructed at the same time as the house.

The heritage value of LeBer-LeMoyne House resides in the historical period and activity to which it bears witness, and in the fact that it is the only complete structure with Charles Le Moyne. The site played a role in the fur trade during the French Régime, as illustrated by the form, composition, site, and setting of both the house and the outbuilding.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1999
Légaré Mill National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Eustache, Québec

Légaré Mill National Historic Site of Canada is a milling site situated between the sloping north bank of the Rivière du Chêne and the main street of the village of St. Eustache, Quebec. Located just opposite the town hall, the site has functioned continuously since the French Régime. Now part of a complex, the flour mill is surrounded by a saw mill, a miller's house, a dam, and a mill pond, all of which are encompassed by the designation.

The heritage value of Légaré Mill lies in the physical and functional continuity of the cohesiveness of the complex, in the utilitarian forms and diverse vernacular traditions of its buildings, and in the evidence of continuous technological evolution it contains. Légaré Mill was constructed in 1762-63 by François Maisonneuve on land granted to him by the Seigneur of Mille Isles on condition that he build a mill complex. Today that complex contains a flour mill (1762-63), a saw mill (1880), a miller's house (1902-1903), a dam and a mill pond (1762-63). These resources reflect different time periods of vernacular construction and milling technology. The name of the site comes from the Légaré family who owned the mill during the 20th century.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, P. St. Jacques, 1984


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, J.P.Jérôme, 1985
Lévis Forts National Historic Site of Canada
Lévis, Québec

Part of Québec fortification system.

Built on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River by the British between 1865 and 1872, the Lévis Forts were designed to protect Québec against American invasion following the Civil War.

Last in a series of three detached forts and beautifully restored by Parks Canada, Fort No. 1 attests to technological innovations that were remarkable for their time.

Lévis Forts National Historic Site of Canada consists of the above and below-ground remains of three 19th-century stone defensive works located on a height of land on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River at Lévis, Québec. The three forts, arranged in a linear pattern, are each approximately 1800 metres apart. The site includes the extant fortification of Fort No. 1, the archaeological remains of Forts No. 2 and 3 as well as evidence of roads leading between the forts, and camps used by construction teams.

The decision to build three forts at Lévis to complete Québec's system of defence was made by the British during the American Civil War under the threat of an invasion by Union soldiers. The Birtish sent William Drummond Jervois to Québec to design improvements to the defensive fortifications at Lévis in order to protect the soldiers stationed there. The construction of the three forts began in 1865, under the direction of the Royal Engineers, and Fort No. 1 was completed in 1872. In addition to the forts, work included the building of a construction camp of some 20 buildings, a dock and a communications network along the St. Lawrence River. Innovative methods were tried and proven in the design, surveying and construction of the Lévis Forts. Steam-powered equipment was used to make concrete faced with stone and the escarpment of Fort No. 1 was constructed of new types of concrete poured in stone frames. No garrisons ever occupied the forts however, because the signing of the Washington Treaty in 1871 eliminated the fear of further clashes between the British and the Americans.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1990
Lévis Railway Station (Intercolonial) National Historic Site of Canada
Lévis, Québec

Lévis Railway Station (Intercolonial) National Historic Site of Canada is a two-storey, stone railway station building located on the east (town) side of CN railway tracks that historically ran along the east bank of the St. Lawrence River in the city of Lévis. It is situated at the head of Côté du Passage street, near its junction with rue Saint Laurent.

Lévis Railway Station (Intercolonial) was commemorated in 1976 as the effective terminus of the Intercolonial Railway from Halifax.

The heritage value of this site resides in its association with the historic Intercolonial Railway illustrated by its physical survival from the nineteenth century.

The Intercolonial Railway, originally built between Halifax and Rivière-du-Loup (1867), extended its main line to end at Lévis in 1879 by the purchase of the Charny/Rivière-du-Loup line constructed by the Grand Trunk Railway between 1854 and 1860. In 1884 the Intercolonial Railway extensively remodelled the Lauzon town hall/market (1864) in Lévis to serve as its station. In the years that followed, the Grand Trunk Railway and the Québec Central Railway also used terminal facilities in the building. Both the Grand Trunk Railway and the Intercolonial were folded into Canadian National Railways (CNR) after 1919, and the building became a CNR station. It was renovated and modernized in 1986 for use as a VIA Rail passenger depot, but was closed in 1993 when service stopped on the railway line on which it stands.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1999
Louis Bertrand House National Historic Site of Canada
L'Isle-Verte, Québec

The Louis Bertrand House National Historic Site of Canada is located in the village of L'Isle-Verte in the Bas-Saint Laurent region of Quebec. Constructed for Louis Bertrand, a successful merchant and active politician, the house is rectangular in plan with two full storeys and a two-level attic. The house was built in the traditional "maison québecoise" manner, as seen in the high foundations, gallery, steep roof, and details such as the multi-paned casement windows. To this are added stylistic elements from Neoclassicism, including the overall symmetry of plan and elevations, decorative details, and wood cladding fashioned to imitate cut stone. The interior retains its original floor plan, mouldings, and many of its original fittings and furnishings.

This house was constructed in 1853 for the merchant and notable Louis Bertrand, who became the first mayor, founder of the Agricultural Society and Deputy of the county of Rimouski. Measuring 15.85 metres by 10.66 metres, the house has a rectangular plan and medium-pitch roof typical of Quebec architecture, while the detailing reflects a Neoclassical influence. The interior retains fittings and furniture typical of middle class residences of the period. Louis Bertrand's descendants continued to live in the house for four generations. In 2005 the house and contents, a remarkable collection of family related objects, were given to the Université du Quebec à Rimouski (UQAR).

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Louis S. St. Laurent National Historic Site of Canada
Compton, Québec

Childhood home of Louis S. St. Laurent, Prime Minister of Canada, 1948-57.

The Louis S. St. Laurent National Historic Site of Canada, which is located in Compton, in the Eastern Townships, some 20 km from Sherbrooke, is a living reminder of the life and work of the former Prime Minister of Canada.

The rural atmosphere of the village, the charming house in which Louis St. Laurent was born, the once bustling general store: all take us back to another epoch in which we can savour the enchantment of the lifestyle of a different time, while learning about this great man, marked out by destiny.

Located in the Québec Eastern Townships, in the heart of the village of Compton, Louis S. St. Laurent National Historic Site of Canada consist of a house, a general store and its warehouse, a small shed and a shelter associated with Louis S. St. Laurent, former Prime Minister of Canada, all within a landscape design that retains traces of its evolution. More recently, two structures have been built, one recalling a former stable in its location and massing.

The heritage value of Louis S. St. Laurent National Historic Site of Canada resides in the features of its cultural landscape associated with the life of Louis S. St. Laurent (1882-1973), and in the general manner in which its cultural landscape depicts village life in the Eastern Townships over one century.

Louis S. St. Laurent was born on this property; he inherited a share of it in 1933, and retained ownership until 1971. The historic site consists of three lots assembled by his parents in 1881 and 1908, and contains four surviving structures from this period. Two buildings, a house and a general store, were acquired from previous owners by the St. Laurents in 1881, and eventually expanded. Two structures were added by the family: a small shed (1885 - 1900) and a weigh scale shelter (1936). In addition, there are archaeological remnants of buildings from the St. Laurent period, and two buildings constructed at a later date. Parks Canada assumed management in 1975.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Louis-Joseph Papineau National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Stone house built in 1785, associated with Louis-Joseph Papineau.

Located in Old Montreal on Bonsecours Street, the Louis-Joseph Papineau National Historic Site of Canada is typical of the architectural style seen in the Montreal area in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It was home to four generations of the Papineau family: Joseph Papineau, his son Joseph Papineau, Louis-Joseph Papineau and his descendants. This National Historic Site of Canada is closed to Visitors.

Louis-Joseph Papineau National Historic Site of Canada was the Papineau family home in Montreal. Located on rue Bonsecours, the two-and-a-half storey stone house with its steeply pitched roof sits flush to the street. An arched passageway allows for vehicular access to the rear courtyard.

Louis-Joseph Papineau National Historic Site of Canada is valued for its connection to Papineau during the years he was most active politically. His family's long period of previous ownership make the underlying French Regime architecture of this house a reflection of Papineau's roots. The changes he introduced in 1831-32 provide an indication of his tastes as well as the new ideas he implemented to suit his contemporary world.

This house was owned by the Papineau family from 1748 to 1779, and again from 1809 to 1920 and was substantially renovated by Louis-Joseph Papineau in 1831-1832. The changes he made included construction of covered brick passage providing entrance to the rear courtyard, moving the main door from a central location on the façade to one end and creating a new interior vestibule and main staircase. This house was sold to the Government of Canada in 1982. Under Parks Canada administration, its roof and façade have been substantially rebuilt.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canadada, 1988
Loyola House / National School Building National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Loyola House / National School Building National Site of Canada is an imposing early Gothic Revival style public building located within the walls of Old Québec City, Quebec. Set on a sloping street, this classically organized two-and-a-half-storey stone building features regular fenestration, a large gabled portico and a belvedere. Gothic Revival detailing enhances the structure.

Constructed between 1822 and 1823 to plans by stone merchant Benjamin Tremaine, the Loyola House / National School Building is one of the earliest examples of Gothic Revival style architecture in Canada, and also in the use of this style on a public building. Its pointed gothic windows and distinctive drip label mouldings applied to a building of classical proportions reflect the Romantic phase of the Gothic style. In 1842, architect Henry Musgrave Blaiklock added another storey and an annex, taking care to use the same fenestration pattern in the additions. Modifications have been made over the years to adapt to changing functions. The building has served as a school, a home for orphans and the poor, and as a social and cultural centre.

At the instigation of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, an Anglican institution, this National School insuring the education of orphans was erected in behalf of the creation of the British National Schools. The Building housed a number of other institutions of religious, charitable, or educational vocations. Owned by the Jesuits from 1904 to 1969, the building was renamed Loyola House and used as a centre for social and cultural activities.

©Library and Archives Canada / Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, PA-056837, C. M. Johnson, 1934
Madeleine de Verchères National Historic Site of Canada
Verchères, Québec

Madeleine de Verchères National Historic Site of Canada is located in a small landscaped park on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River in Verchères, Quebec. The site consists of a 7.2-metre high bronze statue of Madeleine de Verchères set atop a tapered conical tower with a square stone base, which stands sentinel facing the St. Lawrence River. The site also includes the manicured grass area and the fence surrounding the monument.

In 1692, a group of Iroquois attacked Fort Verchères in what was then New France. At the time of the attack, 14 year-old Madeleine de Verchères (1678-1747), her two younger brothers, an elderly servant and two soldiers held the fort. Young Madeleine led the defence, which after eight days of resistance, ended in victory.

In the early 20th century, the Governor General of Canada, Lord Grey, recommended a commemoration project to honour the role Madeleine de Verchères played in defending Fort Verchères. After seeing the statuette of Madeleine de Verchères created by Louis-Philippe Hébert in 1910, the Governor General proposed reproducing the statuette on a larger scale and placing it on the headland of Verchères, facing the St. Lawrence River. The monument was erected in 1913, and in 1927, a plaque was added by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada.

©National Library, NL 14659, 1955
Magog Textile Mill National Historic Site of Canada
Magog, Québec

Only 19th century mill where the entire process of spinning, weaving, bleaching and printing was carried on at one site; built in 1883.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2003
Maillou House National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Fine example of 18th-century Québec town architecture, 1736.

Maillou House is a picturesque two-storey, stone house located in Quebec City's historic district. Its simple vernacular form with steep, gabled roof and high chimneys speaks to its French-Regime origins. Set flush to the sidewalk with a courtyard and outbuildings hidden behind a stone wall, it is a fine example of an urban house of the 18th century.

Built about 1737 as a one-storey structure by Jean-Baptiste Maillou, the house was raised one storey in 1767, extended at ground level in 1799 which was raised one storey in 1805, and a rear annex added between 1828 and 1831, by which time it had achieved its present form. The Maillou House is typical of the traditional domestic architecture of the French regime, a style that continued into the early 19th century and it is a good example of the urban residence of a well-to-do citizen of Lower Canada. Two outbuildings were built by the Royal Engineers in 1830 to serve as a stable and storage shed, together with the stone wall, during the time the house was held by the British army. The arrangement of the house and its outbuildings around the periphery of a closed court is one of the few extant examples of a once-typical urban grouping in the first decades of the 19th century.

Jean-Baptiste Maillou dit Desmoulins (1688-1753) built the house and lived in it until his death. He was one of the most important private landowners in Quebec during the French regime and one of the most successful building contractors of the time. Louis Liénard de Beaujeu de Villemonde, who owned the house from 1754 to 1766, was a military officer who rented the premises to other officers. After the British conquest, the military governor designated the house as the meeting place for the military council that would govern Quebec until civil government could be established. The council met there from 1760 to 1764. Antoine Juchereau Duchesnay (1740-1806), who lived in the house from 1766 until 1785 and added the second storey, acquired the house from his father-in-law Villemonde. Duchesnay was a wealthy and influential politician and businessman, an army and militia officer, a member of the Executive Council of Lower Canada, and seigneur of Beauport, Fossambault, Gaudarville, and Saint-Roch-des-Aulnaies. John Mervin Nooth, who lived in the house from 1785 until 1799, was superintendent of military hospitals for British North America. John Hale (1765-1838) who lived in the house from 1799 to 1815, was Deputy Pay Master General for the British troops, Inspector-General of Public Accounts, member of the legislative council of Quebec, militia commander, justice of the peace for Quebec, Montreal and Trois-Rivières, and seigneur of Saint-Anne-de-la-Pérade. He built a one-storey extension to the house to serve as an office for the British army treasury.

The crown acquired the property in 1815 and the Commissariat, Pay and Army Bill Offices charged with provisioning the troops were located there from 1815 to 1871. It served as the office of the British army's chief administrator as well as the military treasury. After 1843, it also served as lodging for senior administrative officers. After British troops left Canada in 1871, the house was used as headquarters for the local militia for almost 60 years. Since then it has been used by local reserve forces and as the offices of the Quebec Chamber of Commerce.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1982
Maison Cartier National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Maison Cartier National Historic Site of Canada is located on the east side of Place Jacques Cartier in Old Montréal, in Quebec. Built between 1812 and 1813, this two-and-a-half storey building is made of cut stone, with a gabled tinplate roof. The property also includes a rear yard and a stone block addition. Associated with the lodging industry for most of its existence, this house is one of the last small inns remaining in Canada.

In 1808 a parcel of the property was transferred to the City of Montreal to develop a public market, the "New Marketplace," known today as Place Jacques-Cartier. In the midst of this flurry of growth, Augustin Perrault and Louis Parthenay became involved in land speculation. The two associates purchased land in the New Marketplace and then on March 10, 1812, made an agreement with Amable Amiot to build two to three houses at the location. The first building completed was Maison Cartier. As soon as it was finished, it was rented out. One of its first occupants was Joseph Sicard Carufel, an innkeeper. Today, Maison Cartier is a restaurant and one of the last small inns still standing in Canada.

Maison Cartier is an example of a building used as an inn in the early 19th century, a very popular type of building at a time where travellers had to make frequent stops. Now covered with cut stone, it is endowed with a new gallery at street level. The ground floor is characterized by large windows and double doors on the left side. Six windows, arranged in a row, adorn the second floor and three accentuate the gabled roof. Covered in tinplate, the roof is closed in by firewalls that extend the gabled walls.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, N. Clerk, 2005
Maison Saint-Gabriel National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Located in the southern part of Pointe-Saint-Charles in Montréal, at the end of Dublin Place, Maison Saint-Gabriel National Historic Site of Canada is situated at the centre of a property of irregular shape which also contains a barn constructed of field stone, a well and a wooden cross. Maison Saint-Gabriel is an example of French-Canadian architecture dating from the days of the French regime. The lot is an island of pastoral greenery in a large residential sector.

The heritage value of Maison Saint-Gabriel derives from the fact that it is an exceptional example of the rural architecture of New France and it is associated with the religious work of Marguerite Bourgeoys and of the religious community Congrégation de Notre-Dame, which she founded.

Maison Saint-Gabriel is a remarkable building whose history and architecture are evocative of 17th-century New France. Erected on a rectangular plan, the impressive fieldstone house consists of a central body flanked by two small wings and topped by a steep, gable roof whose two slopes are pierced by small dormers, double chimneys and a belfry. Owing to its exterior composition, interior layout and construction techniques, it is an exceptional example of the rural architecture of New France.

It is also an exceptional testament to the religious work of Marguerite Bourgeoys and the Congrégation de Notre-Dame. Maison Saint-Gabriel was home to a small group of filles du roi (king's daughters), served as a primary school for young children and a homemaking school for young girls, and also served as a residence for nuns employed on a sharecrop farm.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2004
Manoir Papineau National Historic Site of Canada
Montebello, Québec

19th-century manor, home of Patriot leader, Louis-Joseph Papineau.

Located in Montebello, halfway between Hull/Ottawa and Montréal, the Manoir Papineau National Historic Site represents one of the most treasured heritage locations in the area surrounding La Petite-Nation and in the greater Ottawa River region.

The Site has been designed primarily to commemorate Louis-Joseph Papineau, the man who was to become a leading figure in Canadian politics during the 19th century. The Site is also designed to showcase the manor house and domain of "Monte-Bello," the impressive work of architecture designed and given form by Louis-Joseph Papineau.

Manoir Papineau is a large elegant residence set on wooded grounds on a high bluff above the north bank of the Ottawa River at Montebello, Québec, half way between Ottawa and Montreal. It is located next to the Château Montebello Hotel.

The heritage value of Manoir Papineau National Historic Site resides in the manor as a reflection of the tastes and knowledge (including reading habits, knowledge of agriculture, eclectic architectural taste and interest in genealogy) of the lawyer and seigneur Louis-Joseph Papineau. Louis-Joseph Papineau left Canadian politics in 1837 and decided to move to this estate in 1846. Most of the buildings it contains were constructed before his death in 1855. His family continued to occupy the property until 1929 when it was sold to an investment corporation that became the Seigniory Club in 1933. Canadian Pacific, in turn, purchased the property in 1949. Parks Canada has since restored the estate and opened it for public visitation.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2006
Marie-Reine-du-Monde Cathedral National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Marie-Reine-du-Monde Cathedral is an imposing building in the Baroque Revival style of the second half of the 19th century. The cathedral is in the shape of a Latin cross, covering nearly 4,700 square meters. It is characterized by a prominent narthex built in coursed ashlar, surmounted by 13 statues and a monumental dome. It is 77 meters in height, and dominates the building where the transepts meet. The other walls of the cathedral are made of limestone with embossed surface. The nave has a two slope roof made of copper. Inside rises a red copper canopy with gold leaves. The cathedral was built in the "Golden Square Mile", a privileged neighbourhood where lived the Montreal gentry that emerged during the mid-19th century. Nowadays, the cathedral is surrounded by Place du Canada and Dorchester Square, two green spaces, and is adjacent to renowned buildings such as the Sun Life building, the Queen Elisabeth Hotel and Central Station.

The Marie-Reine-du-Monde Cathedral was built gradually, from 1870 to 1878 and from 1885 to 1894. The interior decoration was put in place over the course of many years during which, among other things, marble altars, the large organ, the canopy and a series of historical paintings were added. The commemorative monument to Bishop Bourget was erected in 1903. The cathedral was built at a time when revolutionary liberal ideas collided with the Church's conservatism. Bishop Bourget, second bishop of the Montreal diocese and keen promoter of ultramontanism, initiated the project which was aimed at promoting the predominance of the Church over social and government spheres and the construction of the cathedral evokes the materialization of this will. Built in a district in full development, the cathedral demonstrates the will of the Church to impose itself at the very core of an urban centre in full bloom.

Through its style, the Marie-Reine-du-Monde Cathedral illustrates the will to copy the baroque model of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the greatest symbol of the Catholic religion. It offers an interpretation, although simplified and of more modest dimensions, of its roman model. Architects Victor Bourgeau and Joseph Michaud were, in turn, sent to Rome by Bishop Bourget in order to draw the plans of the cathedral. The cathedral's Baroque style breaks with the neo gothic architecture in both Protestant and Catholic churches in Montreal during this period.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, HRS 319, 1992
Marlborough Apartments National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Marlborough Apartments National Historic Site is a four-storey, red brick, Queen Anne Revival-style apartment building located at 570 Milton Street, Montréal.

Marlborough Apartments was designated a national historic site in 1991 as a fine example of the Queen Anne Revival style and turn-of-the-century apartment design.

The heritage value of this site resides in its illustration of the Queen Anne Revival style as used for apartment building design at the turn of the twentieth century in Canada.

The Marlborough Apartments was designed by Taylor and Gordon, architects, and built in 1900. Queen Anne Revival was a popular motif for luxurious domestic architecture (both houses and apartments) across Canada in the 1870-1914 period. The key to successful Queen Anne Revival apartment design is conception of the building as a unified whole, much like a large house. Marlborough Apartments is one of the few Queen Anne apartment buildings that has survived in Canada.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, A. Waldron, 2000.
Masonic Memorial Temple National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Masonic Memorial Temple National Historic Site of Canada is a monumental, elegant neoclassical stone building built from 1929 to 1930. Designed in the Beaux-Arts tradition, it resembles a Greek temple and occupies a corner lot in Montréal's urban core. The imposing main façade features a rusticated limestone base with four openings and a central entrance flanked by two freestanding columns supporting terrestrial and celestial spheres. The main double-door is made of bronze. The decorative belt course that defines the upper part of the base features ornamental carving and words in relief. The property slopes with the elevation of downtown Montréal.

Built to honour the Freemasons who had served and fallen in the First World War, today it is the meeting place and headquarters of the Grand Lodge of Québec. Designed by prominent Montréal architect John Smith Archibald in 1929-1930, the Masonic Memorial Temple uses a form of classicism favoured by the Beaux-Arts school of design during the first decades of the 20th century. With its prominent portico, temple-like entrance and windowless expanses, the building evokes a traditional Greek temple. The complex interior layout uses Beaux-Arts principles of rational symmetrical planning to suggest the Biblical temple of Solomon.

Beaux-Arts classicism appropriately expressed the morality of the Freemasons, a fraternal organization who looked to the past for their identity and believed in the superiority of antiquity and of classical architecture. Masonic rituals emphasized moral uprightness through the language of science and mathematics, as well as through the mechanics of building. The moral beliefs of Freemasonry are symbolized in the design and detailing of the temple, expressed in classical language.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Mauvide-Genest Manor National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Jean-de-l'Île-d'Orléans, Québec

Mauvide-Genest Manor National Historic Site of Canada is located on the south coast of l'Île d'Orléans at 1451 chemin Royal in the municipality of Saint-Jean. Its site is sub-divided by the chemin Royal which circumnavigates the island. This road separates the smaller southern portion near the St. Lawrence River from the main northern portion between the road and a small wooded hill, on which a substantial 18th-century stone manor house is located. There are several later outbuildings on both segments of the property.

The heritage value of Mauvide-Genest Manor lies in the substantial 18th-century rural form, materials and setting of its residence, and in its illustration of land subdivisions of the French Regime seigneurial system. Although a later owner was likely responsible, both the land and the manor house appear have been gentrified during the 18th century. Through its size, proximity to the St. Lawrence River and a clear running stream, as well as its access to an established woodlot, the property displays all the characteristics of a rural seigneury along the St. Lawrence.

Originally part of the seigneurie of l'Île d'Orléans, the Mauvide-Genest Manor property was created from an estate owned by Charles Genest. His grandson Jean Mauvide acquired part of the property in 1734, adding the southwest portion of the present property in 1752. When the residence was constructed, its façade was oriented towards the south where it overlooked a garden and the river. The gentrification of the property and the manor in the 18th-century, however, seems to have been completed by a subsequent owner.

Although the manor complex lacks the substantial barn that typically separated such houses from an established road, the Mauvide-Genest Manor is a substantial residence that makes an important contribution to the historic ambience of l'Île d'Orléans.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve of Canada
Headquarters: Havre-Saint-Pierre, Québec

A string of islands carved out by the sea.

Beyond the 50th parallel, along the North Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, lies a remarkably beautiful scattering of some thirty limestone islands and more than 1000 granitic islets and reefs. The territory, the "Mingan Archipelago", became a national park reserve in 1984.

This necklace of land carved out of the limestone bedrock is the site of spectacular natural monuments which bear witness to the never-ending wear of the sea and of the centuries. And there is an abundance of life in this strange half-world: plants of variegated hues and shapes, seabirds gathered in colonies, seals, dolphins and whales, swarming the blue vastness in which the islands bathe.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2007
Model City of Mount Royal National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Model City of Mount Royal National Historic Site of Canada is a large residential suburb located north-west of Mount Royal on in the heart of Montreal Island, Quebec. The current site reflects the original concept of the district plan designed prior to 1914 and built gradually until the 1970s. It consists mainly of residential buildings, ranging from small single-family houses to multi-dwelling complexes, while businesses, schools and churches are situated along strategic arterials. The historic district is equally characterized by its main streets and parkways, its urban fabric and its numerous green spaces, both public and private.

The Model City of Mount Royal was planned as a whole by landscape architect Frederick Gage Todd in 1914, and built in three successive phases, each lasting about 20 years, until the mid 1970s. The three phases of construction are defined on the basis of geographic factors, the construction of infrastructures and the number and type of erected structures. The historic community is nonetheless remarkably homogeneous, thanks to the long-term plan on which this independent urban project was based, starting with the original plan and progressing through the stages of execution and supervision by the city.

The Model City of Mount Royal was created as a response to industrialization and big-city problems that plagued large metropolitan centres during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as part of the urban renewal movement carried on in large Canadian cities by landscape architects. The Model City of Mount Royal is the result of the convergence, in a single project, of the different concepts of the Urban Park, City Beautiful and Garden City movements reaching its point of maturity, as expressed through the presence of a railway, main arterials, winding parkways, and its zoning and layout.

The creation of the Model City is also associated with the speculative and real estate activities carried out by railway companies. By hiring Todd to draw the plans, the railway speculators aimed to turn a profit from the railway and the tunnel under Mount Royal by the Canadian Northern Railway. By creating an attractive suburb, they were making sure they could sell their lots. This close link between the railroad company, the speculators and the creation of the model city still represents an important symbol of the city, as evidenced by the simple grid-like street layout and the prime location of the train station and tracks.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1998
Monklands / Villa Maria Convent National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Monklands / Villa Maria National Historic Site of Canada is located on Décarie Boulevard in Montréal, Quebec. Monklands is a two-storey stone residence that is currently part of the Villa Maria Private School. The centre section, the oldest part of the convent, was built in the Neo-Palladian style and served as the official residence of governors general of Canada from 1844 to 1849, when Montréal was the capital of the United Province of Canada.

The Neo-Palladian residence that today constitutes the centre section and oldest part of the private school was constructed in 1804 on an estate owned by the Décarie family and later purchased by Chief Justice Monk in 1794. In 1844, Monk's niece leased the property to the Crown, which used it as the official residence of the Governor General of Canada and modified it to suit that purpose. Three Governors General occupied the Montréal residence between 1844 and 1849: Sir Charles Metcalfe, Lord Cathcart and Lord Elgin. After 1849, the residence was converted into a hotel by its new tenants. In 1854 it was purchased by the Congregation of Notre-Dame to house a convent and boarding school called Villa Maria.

The heritage value of Monklands / Villa Maria Convent is limited to the oldest part of the building, which served as the residence of Governors General of Canada from 1844 and 1849, and the architectural features, materials, floor plan, craftsmanship, furnishings and facilities dating from the period from 1844 to 1849. It is also related to its setting and elements that recall its status.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Montmorency Park National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Site of bishop's palace; Parliament of Canada 1851-55.

Located in the historic core of the City of Québec, at the top of Côte de la Montagne, Montmorency Park National Historic Site of Canada is an urban park that forms part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada. No surface structure remains to illustrate its role as the site of the Parliament of the Province of Canada; rather, what remains are its associations with military history, including the views towards the river, the battery, and the defensive wall. These associations contribute to its past as part of the military infrastructure of the city. Montmorency Park has several commemorative monuments, and several mature trees.

In 1688, Monsignor de Saint-Vallier acquired this property to construct his Episcopal palace, which was erected between 1693 and 1695 to designs drawn up by Claude Baillif. The original structure was heavily damaged during the bombardment of Quebec in 1759. After repairs were made, the structure was used for various purposes until rented by the government in 1777 to serve as the governor's offices. The legislative assembly of Lower Canada met here beginning in 1792. Finally, in 1831 the building was sold to the government, whereupon extensive alterations and reconstructions were made. No sooner was the building finished than, in 1854, it was burned to the ground. A new building erected later on this site briefly housed the Parliament of the United Canadas. After Confederation, this building served briefly as the legislative assembly of Quebec until the present building was constructed. The present building was also destroyed by fire. In 1908, after years of neglect, the area was cleared and Montmorency Park came into existence.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Nathalie Clerk, 2006
Montréal Botanical Garden National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Montréal Botanical Garden National Historic Site of Canada is a botanical garden built in the 20th century, which now occupies a square plot of land of 75 hectares in eastern Montréal, Quebec. It consists of a cultural landscape of formal and picturesque character comprising some thirty thematic gardens, about ten exhibition greenhouses, an arboretum and an "H" shaped administrative pavilion conceived in the Beaux-Arts and Art Deco styles.

The heritage value of the Montréal Botanical Garden lies in its close association with Brother Marie-Victorin, designated a national historic person, the man who instigated the project. The garden is one of his numerous achievements, realized at a time when he was one of the prominent figures in an emerging Canadian scientific movement, making a name for himself through his innovative approach to botany. The Montréal Botanical Garden was conceived in collaboration with Henry Teuscher, the horticulturist, botanist and landscape architect who designed the original garden plans. Many original features of the garden have been preserved; it has evolved harmoniously over time, remaining a steadfast representation of the primary intentions of the designer.

The main functions of the modern botanical gardens are research, conservation, presentation and education, which the Montréal Botanical Garden has adhered to since its conception in 1931 and opening to the public in 1936. In 1938, Brother Marie-Victorian founded L'École d'apprentissage horticole and reserved a part of the Montréal Botanical Gardens for young scholars and researchers. In addition to its sustainability, the scientific and aesthetic values of the venue lie in its scope, comprehensiveness and complexity, and the quality of its facilities. The rarity of the garden is also notable, since it is one of the principal botanical gardens in the world. The aesthetic experience is based amongst other things, on the beauty of the venue as a whole, including the spectrum of colours of vegetation, the diversity of arrangements and forms, and the contrasts as well as harmony existing between each installation.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, P St. Jacques, 1994
Montréal City Hall National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Montréal City Hall National Historic Site of Canada is a majestic, five-storey stone building built in the Second Empire style between 1872 and 1878. The grand scale of the exterior is repeated in the interior, where over half of the original space was devoted to ceremonial functions. After a devastating fire in 1922, the interior of the building was largely rebuilt, a fifth storey was added, and the central tower redesigned. In 1932, an addition was constructed at the rear of the building. The building occupies a prominent site on a height of land, completing Montréal's historic Place Jacques-Cartier on the north.

As the country's first large scale solely administrative city hall building, the Montréal City Hall responded to increasing population during the late 19th century and the increasing complexity of municipal administration. Its location on Place Jacques-Cartier, in the heart of the expanding financial district, reflects the city's changing economy and the diminishing importance of the city's port area, where the first city hall was located.

The large scale of the building and the choice of the Second Empire style allowed the city to project its importance in North American trade and commerce, to showcase local craftsmanship, and to celebrate its French heritage. It was the first major public building to adopt the style in Canada, and remains one of the finest examples of the style. Renovations, including those conducted after a fire in 1922, have respected the original architectural vocabulary of the design.

©Library and Archives Canada, PA129603, from the National Film Board, Phototèque Collection / Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, PA129603, Office national du film du Canada, Collection Phototèque, 1947


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Dana Johnson, 1997
Montréal Forum National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Montréal Forum is a large, indoor venue for professional ice hockey. It is located at the corner of Sainte-Catherine and Atwater streets in the city of Montréal.

The Montréal Forum was designated a national historic site of Canada in 1997 because it was arguably the country's most famous sporting venue. Because of its intimate association with one of the most successful sporting franchises in North America, the Montréal Canadiens, it also serves as an icon for the role of hockey in Canada`s national culture. Further, the Forum is the oldest of Canada`s large-scale arenas and has, throughout its history, been the country`s leading site for major indoor cultural, political and religious events.

The heritage value of this site resides in its association with professional ice hockey, and specifically as the former home of the Montréal Canadiens. Built in 1924 as a professional ice hockey venue, the Montréal Forum served for 71 years as the home of the Montréal Canadiens, one of the earliest professional teams and Canada's oldest continuously operating franchise. Founded in 1909, the Canadiens set records unsurpassed in all of professional sport in North America, for the making the most appearances in playoffs and in Stanley Cup finals. Because of its close identification with the Canadiens, the Forum is regarded as ice hockey's "Holy Place".

The Forum is a rare early example of a large indoor venue suitable for international and national events and has accommodated a broad range of social, political and religious events. These include pop and rock concerts, symphonic performances and opera; non-musical shows of all kinds; sports events other than hockey, including boxing, wrestling, tennis and the 1976 Olympic gymnastics competition; political and sacred rallies, conventions, meetings and ceremonies.

The building was substantially reconstructed in 1968. In 1996 the Forum was officially closed and converted for other uses.

©Pointe-à-Callière Archaeological Field School / École de fouilles de Pointe-à-Callière, Alain Vandal, 2007
Montréal's Birthplace National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Montréal's Birthplace National Historic Site of Canada is located between de la Commune Street West and Place D'Youville in the Old Port of Montréal, in Quebec. The site marks the location where Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve laid the foundation of Montréal on May 18, 1642. The site consists of the remains of Fort Ville-Marie, also known as Fort Maisonneuve, which was built in 1645 at the request of Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve. There are no visible remains of the site.

The heritage value of Montréal's Birthplace resides in its associations with the founding of the City of Montréal, as it was here that its founders landed on May 18, 1642. In command of the expedition, Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve, designated a national historic person of Canada, chose to land in what was soon to be called Ville-Marie with the goal of founding a city. The site, which gave birth to Montréal, also witnessed the city's transformation into one of Canada's largest metropolitan centres.

The foundation of Montréal was marked by the construction of Fort Ville-Marie. The site was judged to be an ideal place to erect a defensive fort, at a time when tensions were high between the French settlers and the Iroquois, who had used the location as a meeting place for centuries. Built in 1645 by French settlers under the command of Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the original stone fort occupied a footprint of 97.5 square meters. Archaeological excavations have uncovered remains of Fort Ville-Marie.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1993
Monument National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Located on Saint-Laurent Boulevard in Montréal, Quebec, the Monument National National Historic Site of Canada is an impressive, four-storey theatre and cultural centre constructed in an eclectic Renaissance style. Its ornate façade in grey cut ashlar stone features four distinct levels, distinguished by varied fenestration, stringcourses and cornices. The redbrick rear elevation is dominated by six semi-blind arches, and features two two-storey oriole windows and two square windows at the base.

In 1884, the association Saint-Jean-Baptiste de Montréal announced the construction of a multi-faceted cultural centre on Saint-Laurent Boulevard in Montréal called the Monument National, designed to house the administration of the society and to promote French-Canadian culture. Construction of the building began in 1891 and was completed in 1894, with the main theatre being inaugurated on June 25, 1893. The Monument National was known as the "Heart of French America" and was a symbol of Quebec nationalism. In 1921, the Société canadienne d'opérette was founded by Honoré Vaillancourt at the Monument National. Among the many stars to grace the stages of the Monument National were Emma Albani, La Bolduc and Alys Robi.

The Monument National also served as a venue for political discussion in Montréal, hosting the likes of Honoré Mercier, Wilfrid Laurier and Henri Bourrassa. Important women's rights activists, including Idola Saint-Jean and Marie Gérin-Lajoie, led the Quebec feminist movement from the Monument National, demanding revisions to the Civil Code of Quebec, the right to vote and the right to post-secondary education. Often called a "people's university," the Monument National allowed space for classrooms to provide equal access to education for men and women.

The Monument National also served the Jewish, Chinese and English communities in Montréal. The building housed religious offices between 1903 and 1935, it hosted the first meeting of the Canadian Jewish Congress in 1919, Yiddish productions were held there until the 1950s, and Chinese and English performances were held in the building. It was also one of the first venues in North America to feature cinematic projection.

The Monument National was purchased by the National Theatre School of Canada in 1978 and was renovated between 1991 and 1993.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Andrew Waldron, 2014
Morrin College Former Quebec Prison National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Morrin College / Former Québec Prison National Historic Site of Canada is an imposing early 19th-century institutional building, located in Quebec City. This four-storey stone building, designed in the Palladian style, was built in 1808-14 as a prison. It was converted for use as a college in 1868, and has served since then as the library and archives of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec.

In keeping with Howard's principles, the interior plan of the prison provided for the separation of inmates into cell blocks according to the type and severity of their crimes. Within each cell block, communal space was provided for rehabilitative work activities, and latrines ensured basic hygiene. The prison was also one of the first to be built separately from a courthouse.

Designed by Quebec architect François Baillairgé (1759-1830), the building reflects the traditions of both English Palladian and French architecture. Brought to Canada by British administrators and clergymen after the conquest, the Palladian style became popular in Canada during the early 19th century for domestic and religious architecture. Baillairgé was one of the first Quebec architects to use the Palladian style for an administrative building. Baillairgé gave the building a distinctive appearance by incorporating unusual dimensions and ornamentation, and by employing a 16th-century French architectural device in which building components are arranged in accordance with a mathematical ratio. Craftsmen who contributed to the building of the prison include joiners Charles Marié et Pierre Fauché, carpenter J.-Baptiste Bédard, masons Édouard Cannon et fils, glassmaker Pierre Romain, and ironworker Pierre le François. The building was converted for use as an anglophone college in 1868 by architect Joseph-Ferdinand Peachy. Since then it has also been the home of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, itself an institution designated of national historic significance.

©CUM, reproduite de : Les Chemins de la mémoire,tome II, Québec, Les publications du Québec, 1991, p. 113
Mother House of the Grey Nuns of Montréal National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Mother House of the Grey Nuns National Historic Site of Canada is a large, austere, stone building located in downtown Montréal, Quebec. The rectangular, central portion of the building features a distinctive, elegant chapel with octagonal tower and spire. Regularly placed windows and dormers give an ordered appearance. The main portion stands four stories tall except the west wing which has five stories. The building stands on an H-shape footprint with entrances on Saint Matheiu and Guy Street. The Guy Street entrance features a gatehouse. An ornamental metal fence and a stone wall surround the grounds that contain treed gardens, paths, seating and statues.

The Mother House of the Grey Nuns was begun in 1869 and was used for over 130 years as the centre of the order's extensive charity work. The building's heritage value lies in its role as the home of the order and as the facilitator of their work over the years through functional spaces like a hospital and an orphanage. Heritage value is also derived from the building's architecture — a mix of the Neoclassical and Romanesque Revival styles that combine to make it an excellent example of 19th century convent architecture. These styles are represented through design elements like the austere stone exterior and the elegant chapel.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Rhona Goodspeed, 2005
Mount Hermon Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Mount Hermon Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada is a small, attractive example of a rural or garden cemetery. The picturesque cemetery features funerary monuments in a variety of styles as well as a varied landscape with winding roads and a range of different types of trees. It was established in 1848 as a burial site of the various Protestant denominations of the City of Québec, in what is now the Sainte-Foy-Sillery borough of the city.

The Mount Hermon Cemetery was established during the rural cemetery movement in the early 19th-century, in accordance with its principles of creating a naturalistic and pastoral setting. Its Picturesque aspects include a blending of nature and art which can be found in the variety of neoclassical monuments located at the cemetery, in the winding paths and in the panoramic views of the St. Lawrence River. Mount Hermon was the first rural cemetery established in the area around the City of Québec as a result of the need for a new burial site due to overcrowding at the Old Protestant Burying Ground, located within the city.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2004
Mount Royal Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Mount Royal Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the Outremont borough of Montréal, Québec. Opened in 1852, the 67-hectare cemetery was designed in a Picturesque style reminiscent of early 19th-century rural cemeteries in France and the United States. The terraced grounds of the cemetery are landscaped with islets of flowers and mature trees and contain many commemorative monuments and sculptural grave markers of varying styles and sizes. The site also features several associated buildings including the director's residence and crematorium.

The Mount Royal Cemetery was incorporated in 1847 and consacrated in 1852 as a Protestant cemetery and was designed by architect James C. Sidney according to the Picturesque principles of the early 19th-century rural cemetery movement. Its arrangement includes natural features, winding paths, irregular islets of flower beds and mature trees that are integrated with the funerary monuments to create a series of landscaped vistas. The cemetery also features a wide range of funerary monuments, including 12 mausoleums, one of which is associated with the Molson family, and a wide-range of smaller funerary monuments, including that of General Sir Arthur Currie. Its park-like design and panoramic views emphasize the dominance of nature in the cemetery and would become a model for subsequent rural cemeteries in Canada.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1982
New Québec Custom House National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

The New Québec Custom House is a Neoclassical, stone building with a pedimented portico and central dome. Its exterior detailing exhibits a strong Italianate influence. The Custom House is located in the old port area of the city of Québec. Now dominated by residential and recreational uses, the port area sits on a flat shelf of land known as Pointe-à-Carcy, below the old city of Québec, and is highly visible from the river.

The New Québec Custom House was designated a national historic site because, conceived in a rich Italianate style, it reflects Québec's exceptional growth as the great centre of St. Lawrence Valley timber trade and wooden ship construction.

The New Québec Custom House is a fine example of a Neoclassical public building enhanced with a rich layer of Italianate detailing. One of many public buildings designed by prominent Toronto architect William Thomas during the mid 19th century, it features his signature decorative touches: heavily vermiculated stonework, and sculptured, anthropomorphic keystones. Although parts of the building's exterior were altered following major fires in 1864 and 1909, and the interior was completely redone in 1910, the Custom House retains its basic Neoclassical form and features, along with the Italianate stylistic definition that typifies its era and its architect. The early-20th-century, Beaux-Arts interior is carefully integrated with the Neoclassical exterior.

The New Québec Customs House was built as part of the mid-19th-century expansion of the customs system. It is the largest extant example of the many new facilities built during the 1850s as part of the reorganization of the customs function. Its scale and location reflect the continuing importance of customs as the largest single source of government revenue during the 19th century.

The construction of the New Québec Customs House reflects the prosperity of Québec at mid-century, its position as one of two alternating capitals of Canada, and its continuing importance as a major port on the St. Lawrence River. Despite growing competition from Montreal, Québec remained the major Canadian port for the timber trade in the 19th century, and the ship-building industry continued to operate as a mainstay of the Québec economy. The construction of a fine, new customs house was justified by the large volume of port traffic at Québec.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2008
Notre-Dame-de-Lorette Church National Historic Site of Canada
Wendake, Québec

Notre-Dame-de-Lorette Church National Historic Site of Canada is a small stone church set on a grassed lot in the centre of Old Wendake Historic District, in Quebec. Constructed in 1865, the building features a metal-clad gable roof surmounted by a bell tower on the ruins of an early-18th century church. A lateral wood chapel and a sacristy date from the early 20th century. Many interior furnishings and objects date back to the 17th century.

Under the French Regime of the 17th century, the Huron First Nations people became principal intermediaries in the fur trade and the closest allies of the French. Due to the threat of disease and Iroquois invasions, many Hurons fled to missions such as the one located at Jeune-Lorette. The original stone chapel was constructed at the mission in 1722, but was damaged by fire in 1862. The current church of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette is the product of the 1865 reconstruction, using the site and model of the previous church. The current church has fieldstone walls half a metre thick. The simplicity of its layout, the exterior ornamentation and its interior organization, recall the mission churches, small chapels, and parish churches of the 18th and 19th centuries. The layout of the church is rectangular, and ends with a flat chevet.

The church's austere main façade features a circular window above the arched main entrance. Rebuilt on the model of the preceding church, which dated from the beginning of the 18th century, it is an exceptional example of traditional religious architecture, in its simplest form. The church interior remains simple following modifications to décor and roofing at the end of the 19th century. The objects within the church mark an era of transition in religious arts, as local artists and artisans started to differentiate their work from European styles.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1997


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada is located in Mount Royal Park within Mount Royal Cemetery National Historic Site of Canada, in Montréal. Founded in 1854, this attractive park-like environment covers 113 hectares. Inspired by both formal traditions and the picturesque style, the design of the cemetery combines the site's remarkable natural topography, majestic trees, lawns, and winding paths with more formal areas containing grave markers, monuments, and commemorative elements of different styles and sizes. Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery is an illustration of 19th century rural cemeteries. Through the variety and historical significance of many of the persons buried there, the Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery commemorates many aspects of the history of Montréal, Quebec and Canada.

Located on Côte-des-Neiges Road, the main entrance to Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery consists of two pavilions that remain from the original portal. The site includes various buildings of historical value including the administrative building, the chapel and the first charnel house, now a mausoleum. The site also includes greenhouses, various service buildings and eight mausoleums. Numerous monuments and gravestones of great artistic, historic and symbolic importance make this a significant site, conducive to contemplation and evocative of the past. Northwest of the administrative building, the cemetery offers panoramic views of the Université de Montréal, Saint-Joseph Oratory and Westmount's summit.

Adapted to a diversified topography, Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery offers sinuous, romantic roads on a checkerboard plan designed by Henri-Maurice Perrault and his followers. The long avenues lined with trees reflect French traditions while winding paths and wooded islets recall rural American cemeteries of the 19th century. Uneven terrain at the cemetery's northernmost section features winding pathways, while the abundance of high quality funeral monuments within the more formal areas the grounds create the impression of a garden of cut and sculpted stones. Religious symbolism is omnipresent, as are the reminders of mortality. The diversity of monuments and family vaults in this vast "French garden" provides insight into the social, economic and political history of the city of Montréal. The cemetery contains approximately 65 000 monuments, 71 family vaults and is the final resting place for more than 900 000 individuals. Today, the Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery and its 139 hectares and 55 kilometres of roads and pathways is one of the largest cemeteries in Canada.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Architectural History Branch, 1988
Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Church National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Church National Historic Site of Canada is prominently located in Place Royale in Québec's lower town. Built on the site of the first permanent French establishment in North America, the site is associated with the growth of the city of Québec and its inhabitants. The church was constructed of stone in the Québec's vernacular style in 1688, and remains a symbol of the French presence in North America. Constructed with both neoclassical and Palladian influences, the building features a symmetrical façade, a wide pediment and cut-stone pilasters.

Built as an annex for the Notre-Dame-de-Québec church, the Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Church was constructed in 1688 on the site of the first permanent French establishment in North America. It was the same site of Champlain's Habitation constructed in 1608. The church was named for the two French victories over British fleets in 1690 and 1711. It has undergone many transformations beginning with the building of the first walls in 1688 and the first permanent façade in 1723. The church was destroyed during the siege of 1759 but, owing to popular interest in this place of worship, it was rebuilt.

The church is a good illustration of the evolution of ecclesiastical architecture in Québec. It retains its 17th-century plan and traditional stone construction, which identify it with the church architecture of New France and connect it to the works of some of the French Regime's well-known architects such as, Claude Baillif, Jean-Baptiste Maillou and Thomas Baillairgé. In addition, its façade represents an important period in the architectural development of Québec churches when Neoclassical forms began to take over traditional forms. It is also one of the few surviving works by François Baillairgé.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Notre-Dame Roman Catholic Cathedral National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Notre-Dame Roman Catholic Cathedral National Historic Site of Canada stands amongst other historic institutional buildings in the heart of the historic district of Old Québec, Quebec. Overlooking the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville this handsome stone building, set under a copper roof, features a richly detailed Neoclassical facade flanked by two towers of different age and design. Situated on the site of the Church of Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix, built in 1647, the present cathedral is the product of many reconstructions, the last in 1922, which restored it to its mid-19th century appearance.

First built during the French Regime in 1647 as a stone church on behalf of François de Montmorency Laval, Notre-Dame Roman Catholic Cathedral became the first parish church of the colony of New France in 1664. Notre-Dame has always been at the centre of Roman Catholic life in Québec. The only parish church until 1829, it served all levels of society. When Laval became the first Bishop of Quebec in 1674, the building was "entrenched" as a cathedral and was then enlarged. Destroyed during the Siège of Québec in 1759, the cathedral was reconstructed from 1766 to 1771 according to plans by Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry from 1743. The exception was the bell-tower designed by Jean Baillairgé who also supervised the works. In 1843-1844 architect Thomas Baillairgé designed the remarkable neoclassical façade. The innovative interior, which was to be influential in church architecture within Québec, was designed by François Baillairgé. Ravaged by fire in 1922, the shell of the building was rebuilt to its mid-19th century monumental appearance. Several well-known architects contributed to the exterior and interior of Notre-Dame. Enlarged and altered at different times during its history, the building was influential in Québec church architecture and remains an important focus of Roman Catholic life in the city.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1994
Notre-Dame Roman Catholic Church / Basilica National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Notre-Dame Roman Catholic Church / Basilica National Historic Site of Canada is an immense stone church built from 1824 to 1829 in the Romantic Gothic Revival style. It features massive twin towers and a Gothic-arched, recessed portico. The interior is decorated in a later and more elaborate version of the Gothic Revival style. The church faces onto Notre-Dame Street, directly across from Place d'Armes in the heart of Old Montréal.

Built from 1824 to 1829, Notre-Dame Roman Catholic Church / Basilica was the first significant example of the Gothic Revival style in Canada. In the 1820s the parish of Notre-Dame was led by a group of prominent Montréal merchants and by the Sulpicians, a powerful Roman Catholic religious order that had historically controlled the island of Montréal as its priests and seigneurs. The Sulpicians wanted to build a new parish church that was more impressive than the recently built Roman Catholic and Anglican churches in the city. The Sulpicians called on James O'Donnell, an American Protestant architect to build a church in the latest style, with enough space to accommodate a congregation of more than 8000. The resulting Gothic Revival style church, named Notre-Dame, served all of Montréal. For the next half century it was the largest church in either Canada or the United States. Its early Gothic Revival style, which was applied to a straightforward nave plan with galleries and twin towers, marked the beginning of the style's significance in Canadian church architecture. It represents a Romantic, non-academic approach to the style, which contrasts with the formal Ecclesiological Gothic Revival of many of Canada's large Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals of the mid- to late-19th century.

The parish used many of Quebec's most celebrated architects and artisans to help complete the decoration of the church in the 19th and 20th centuries. Architect John Ostell finished the twin towers in 1843, after O'Donnell's death but according to the original plan. Between 1872 and 1880, O'Donnell's interior was replaced by a more elaborate Gothic Revival decoration, designed by well-known architect Victor Bourgeau. Bourgeau commissioned French sculptor Henri Bouriché to produce the statues and reliefs for the main altar and the massive reredos along the east side of the chancel. Montréal sculptor Louis-Philippe Hébert added a pulpit between 1883 and 1887 to plans by Bouriché. In 1926, Quebec artist Ozias Leduc decorated vaults, walls, doorways and stained glass windows.

©La Pulperie de Chicoutimi - Musée régional | La Pulperie de Chicoutimi - Regional Museum, 2015.
Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill National Historic Site of Canada
Chicoutimi, Québec

Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill National Historic Site of Canada is located in a partially wooded valley on the Chicoutimi River in Quebec. It is a typical early 20th century industrial complex, comprising five buildings constructed between 1898 and 1923. The spacious buildings are of stone masonry with a steel roof and are well lit by many windows.

ctrical substation.

Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill was established in 1896 by then mayor of Chicoutimi, Joseph-Dominique Guay and some partners, including Julien-Édouard-Alfred Dubuc, who became president of the Chicoutimi Pulp Company. The mill produced pulp for newsprint at a time when newspapers played a key role in the Canadian economy. Recognized for the quality of its output, the mill was the Chicoutimi Pulp Company's main facility and the biggest producer of mechanical pulp in Canada around 1910.

The Old Chicoutimi Pulp Mill is typical of the industrial complexes that operated in Quebec from the 1880s until the turn of the century. Its typical features include the stone masonry of the large buildings and the many windows that light the space; all timber processing operations were carried out under one roof, which was a common trait for pulp mills in that period. Many of the buildings that were part of the pulp mill are still standing, even though the mill closed in 1930, and are in exceptionally good condition.

Old Chicoutimi Trading Post National Historic Site of Canada
Chicoutimi, Québec

A fur trade post was built here in 1676 by a firm owned by Jean Oudiette and Charles Bazire. At the head of navigation of the Saguenay River, it soon became the principal post of the region and the major centre of the interior trade. As with the other depots of the King's Posts, it was controlled by a succession of fermiers and companies wich included François-Étienne Cugnet, the North West Company and, lastly, the Hudson's Bay Company. The advent of agricultural settlement and lumbering in the district in the 1840s caused a rapid decline in the fur trade and the abandonment of this post in 1876.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2003
Old Québec Custom House National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

The Old Québec Custom House National Historic Site of Canada is located in the city of Québec's Lower Town. Situated along the St. Lawrence River beside the Queen's Wharf, the two-storey building is distinguished by its elegant, yet conservative, neoclassical design, and features a granite façade, a low-pitched hipped roof, and two broad symmetrical end-chimneys. The entrance is framed by four slightly protruding two-storey Doric pilasters, and the windows are set at equal intervals in the nine-bay façade, with blind arcading along the ground storey and moulded cut-stone frames along the second.

Built between 1831 and 1832, the Old Customs House was designed by Henry Musgrave Blaiklock, one of the first professional architects to practise in Canada. Built along the St. Lawrence River, it is an excellent and rare surviving example of a neoclassical federal building from the 1830s. Its neoclassical design is seen in the elegant exterior and impressive interior woodwork and plaster decoration. The understated but monumental building stands as a testament to the city of Québec's role as a major port for both Upper and Lower Canada, from which the custom duties collected became a significant source of revenue for the region. Having fulfilled its original role as a customs house until 1841, the building has since served various purposes, and now contains federal offices.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2005
Old Wendake Historic District National Historic Site of Canada
Wendake, Québec

Old Wendake Historic District National Historic Site of Canada is located 12 kilometres north-west of the City of Québec. Situated on the southern bank of the Saint-Charles River, near the Kabir-Kouba Falls, the site consists of mainly south-facing residential and commercial buildings that reflect the plan of a traditional Huron village. Main features of the site include a dense residential district of mainly single- and multi-family houses, the Notre-Dame-de-Lorette Church National Historic Site of Canada, two cemeteries, as well as multiple commercial and administrative buildings.

The heritage value of this site resides in the topography and settlement forms of the district, including land-usage patterns and architecture that speak to the 300 years of settlement in this area. During the first half of the 17th century, the Huron-Wendat, who lived and farmed in Huronia just south of Georgian Bay in Ontario, became major fur trading partners with the French. In 1650, devastated by famine, conflict, and contagious diseases from Europe, the Huron-Wendat dispersed from their lands, establishing themselves permanently at Jeune-Lorette. The district was renamed Old Wendake in 1697.

Old Wendake Historic District presents an excellent example of co-existing cultural influences. Rather than adhering to a geometric plan, the district was constructed around natural elements. For example, the primary entrances of its buildings generally face south-east, regardless of which side of the lot faces the street. This layout is similar to traditional Huron villages, although many of the buildings were constructed in European-inspired styles after 1730. In addition, the street blocks are densely formed to allow for pedestrian traffic between houses, fostering a sense of community and public space while facilitating an economic system structured on the basis of cottage industries. The custom of naming streets after former chiefs of the nation demonstrates the relationship that the Huron-Wendat have with this site today, because it supports their collective memory, livelihood and history.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Nathalie Clerk, 1993
Outremont Theatre National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Outremont Theatre is a large, Art-Deco-style movie theatre located at the corner of Bernard and Champagneur avenues in Outremont, an early-20th-century suburban community on Montréal's west island. The theatre is situated among residential buildings, in a mixed residential and commercial neighbourhood.

The Outremont Theatre was designated a national historic site in 1993 because of its national historic and architectural significance. With its early Art Deco exterior and its rich interior combining both atmospheric and Art Deco elements, it is a very fine example of a deluxe cinema in Canada dating from the late 1920s.

Designed by local architect René Charbonneau for Confederation Amusements, Outremont Theatre is typical of the many deluxe cinemas erected in new suburban neighbourhoods across Canada during the 1920s. Deluxe cinemas were mid-size movie theatres designed to hold between 1000 and 2000 patrons. Purpose-built for cinematographic use, they were intended to be attractive and comfortable, reflecting the fact that by the late 1920s the cinema had become mainstream entertainment. Fireproofing measures at Outremont reflect a heightened concern for the safety of patrons after a deadly 1927 cinema fire in Montreal.

Outremont Theatre was one of the first expressions of the Art Deco style in cinema architecture in Canada. It is typical of the early manifestations of the style in its use of traditional classical forms, presented in a stylized fashion. The exterior composition, in which two distinct volumes differentiated by materials, colour and proportions correspond to the principal functions of the building, reflects the advent of the modern architectural aesthetic. The use of Art Deco motifs continues throughout the building's interior.

The interior décor of the auditorium is an extravagant example of the Art Deco style presented in combination with the atmospheric style of cinema design. A short-lived phenomenon popular during the late 1920s, the atmospheric style recreated exotic, pastoral scenes on the walls and ceilings of cinema auditoriums. The Outremont auditorium combines the stylized motifs of Art Deco with pastoral scenes painted on the upper walls, and a luminous coffered ceiling intended to reproduce the atmospheric quality of a sunny day.

Outremont Theatre's elaborate, dream-like interior décor, typical of 1920s cinema design, was created by Emmanuel Briffa. Briffa was a well-known theatre artist who lived in Outremont and was responsible for the interior decoration of more than 60 cinemas across Canada.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1969
Pagé - Rinfret House / Beaudry House National Historic Site of Canada
Cap-Santé, Québec

Pagé - Rinfret House / Beaudry House National Historic Site of Canada, situated on a slight rise overlooking the St. Lawrence River in the village of Cap-Santé, Québec, is a one-and-a-half-storey, wood-frame house, built during the 18th-century. It sits low to the ground, with a very steep gable roof accentuated by multiple dormer windows and two chimneys.

The Pagé — Rinfret House / Beaudry House is an attractive example of the "French-inspired traditional house," an early 19th-century architectural style that reflects the French roots of its Québecois builders. Having evolved from earlier architectural styles of the French Regime, the Pagé — Rinfret House / Beaudry House features a roof steeper and taller than those of earlier traditional Québec houses, as well as a second storey, illuminated by dormer windows, set within the high slope of the roof. Its second chimney reflects the increasing size of the traditional Québec house during the 18th century, and the use of tin to cover the steep roof points to the relatively wide availability of this material at the time. The house's deep curved eave and the raised gallery, two of the most recognizable features of the "French-inspired traditional house," began to appear around the beginning of the 19th century.

The construction technique used in the Pagé — Rinfret House / Beaudry House reflects a building method adapted from Europe to Canadian conditions, and used widely throughout Québec and across western Canada during the 18th and 19th centuries. Known by various names depending on the location and materials used, the technique begins with a frame of heavy squared timber, which is then infilled with squared logs, stones or thick planks. The Pagé - Rinfret House / Beaudry House employs plank infill.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1997
Pavillon Mailloux National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Pavillon Mailloux National Historic Site of Canada is a five-storey brick nurses' residence on the campus of Montreal's Notre-Dame Hospital at 1560 Sherbrooke Street East, now part of Centre hospitalier universitaire de l'Université de Montréal. Very similar in exterior to the rest of the hospital complex, it stands directly behind the east pavilion of the main hospital building to which it is now joined. Like the surrounding hospital buildings, it features a symmetrical, rectangular massing, regularly arranged fenestration, and a flat roof.

The heritage value of Pavillon Mailloux lies in its role in the development of the nursing profession, and in the witness it bears to the health care practice, training, community, and lifestyles of generations of professional nurses. This value is illustrated in the site, setting, design, form and composition of the building, particularly in the integrity of its interior functional layout which reflects generations of nursing education.

Pavillon Mailloux was constructed in 1931 as a students' residence for Notre-Dame Hospital's School of Nursing. The school itself had been founded in 1897 by Mother Élodie Mailloux of the Grey Nuns and was one of the first French language schools of nursing. Construction of this residence was a confirmation of the major changes that occurred in recognition of the roles of women, in particular in the nursing profession. Although the school had run a nursing residence in a converted private home since 1898, Pavillon Mailloux was purpose-built, containing bedrooms and recreational space. Facilities were supplemented by classroom and other educational facilities at the nearby Deschênes Building.
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©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1993
Pointe-au-Père Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada
Pointe-au-Père, Québec

Early reinforced concrete lighttower at strategic location.

Both the Pointe-au-Père lighthouse and its important pilot station have guided thousands of ships and played a crucial role in the history of navigation on the St. Lawrence. Its signature tower, boasting an architecture unlike practically any other in Canada, remains an irreplaceable landmark and seamark. This national historic site is protected and presented by Parks Canada in partnership with the « Site historique maritime de la Pointe-au-Père ».

Pointe-au-Père Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada is a navigation aid centre located on a headland facing the St. Lawrence River at the limit of coastal waters and the open sea. The station is characterized by buildings with red roofs and white walls, dominated by a 24 metre high concrete lighthouse.

Due to its strategic geographic situation, the Pointe-au-Père Lighthouse became a privileged site for the St. Lawrence River pilots from the early 19th century. Over a century of operations, the station has constantly evolved beginning with the construction of the first lighthouse in 1859, soon to be replaced after a fire. In 1909, the third lighthouse was built in an effort of modernization before the department of Transport initiated, in the 1960s, a lighthouse automation program, which included the Pointe-au-Père Lighthouse. On the other hand, many structures were added to meet new tasks delegated to the lighthouse during the various phases of operations. From 1894 to 1985, it housed a tides and currents surveying station and for fifty years, hosted the piloting station. It also took charge of some of the quarantine activities at the Grosse-Île quarantine station from 1923 to 1937.

The lighthouse station also tested many means of communication, which benefited the aid to navigation. A few years after the development of the international code of flag signals, it was implemented at the Pointe-au-Père station; later on, a Marconi station was implemented. The Pointe-au-Père station used simple cannon and explosive bomb signals, and, in 1903, a foghorn signal building. Its implementation led to the experimentation of two types of signals, i.e. the air fog signal and a modified Canadian version, the diaphone. It also tested acetylene lamps. After monitoring, their usage was recommended and in 1904, the diaphone was the model adopted in most lighthouses in Canada. After 1972, an electronic sound signal replaced the diaphone. In 1997, Fisheries and Oceans Canada closed the aid to navigation station. Today, the station is part of a heritage complex known as the "Pointe-au-Père Maritime Historic Site".

©Government of Quebec / Gouvernement du Québec
Pointe-du-Buisson National Historic Site of Canada
Beauharnois, Québec

Pointe-du-Buisson National Historic Site of Canada is made up of several archaeological sites spread over a wooded plateau on a point of land along the Saint Lawrence River in Melocheville, 30 kilometres south of Montreal. The site is an average height of 34 metres above sea level, and is cut into three unequal parts by two small steep-sloped ravines. The space contains 15 separate archaeological sites, the remains of which provide important information about Aboriginal life in the area over the last five millenia.

Pointe-du-Buisson was an ancient location for portage camps and settlement on the banks of a critical transportation route. The western part of the site contains nine archaeological sites (Hector Trudel, Station 2, Station 3 front, Station 3 rear, Plateau-des-portageurs, Pascal Mercier, Camp McKenzie, Jane Ellice and Passerelle). It is a large area that has been used continuously since 5000 BP. The central part has three sites (Station 4, Trois Buttes and Pointe-à-Jonathan), which were occupied primarily in the Late Middle Woodland period (1500-1000 BP). The eastern part has two sites (Station 5 and André Napoléon Montpetit) that provide exceptional documentation of an episode of Early Woodland occupation (3000-2400 BP).

The heritage value of Pointe-du-Buisson National Historic Site resides in the rare and excellent witness it bears to a long period of early aboriginal history. Its value lies in its sites, their settings, and the wealth of artifacts and knowledge they contain.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Powerscourt Covered Bridge National Historic Site of Canada
Hinchinbrooke, Québec

Powerscourt Covered Bridge National Historic Site of Canada is a long wooden covered bridge that still stands on its original stone foundations in Elgin Township, Huntingdon County, Québec, where it carries traffic on the First Concession Road over the Châteauguay River. Featuring three freestanding regularly coursed masonry piers, an irregular roofline and two functionally independent truss spans, it is noted as the only remaining McCallum inflexible arched truss bridge in the world.

The heritage value of Powerscourt Covered Bridge lies in its age and in its use of the rigid (or inflexible) arch truss construction technology. This technology, more commonly used for railway construction, was invented by New York bridge builder Daniel McCallum in 1851. Also known locally as Percy Bridge, it was built in 1861 to carry traffic on the First Concession Road over the Châteauguay River.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, S. Desjardins, 1998
Québec Bridge National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

The Québec Bridge National Historic Site of Canada is a steel cantilever bridge which links the shores of Québec City and Lévis over the St. Lawrence River, located a few kilometres upstream from Québec City. Built in 1917 with a total length of 987 metres and a height of 95 metres, the bridge is comprised of north and south approach bays, anchor piles and arms, two main pillars resting on the river bed, cantilever arms, and a 500-metre suspended section between them.

The Québec Bridge, with its 500-metre free span between the two central pillars, is the longest cantilever bridge of its kind in the world. Built using the K truss system, in which two diagonal beams support one vertical beam (forming a 'K' shape), the bridge is also remarkable for the use of nickel steel in its construction. Although this stronger alloy was more expensive than the more popular carbon steel, it allowed engineers to attain the record-breaking length of the bridge's suspended section.

The bridge was designed and constructed principally by Canadian companies under head engineer H.E. Vautelet. Its construction was facilitated by the K truss system, but also by the manner in which the suspended section was installed. Constructed separately, this section was floated on the river to the cantilever arms and raised, where it was riveted in place. Because of its size and innovative design, the Québec Bridge remains one of the most important bridges in the history of civil engineering in Canada, as well as an important symbol of Québec City.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, P. St. Jacques, 1984
Québec Citadel National Historic Site of Canada
Côte de la Citadelle, Québec

The Québec Citadel National Historic Site of Canada is the 19th-century fortress located on Cap Diamant in the centre of Québec City. This great stone fortress sits with its back along the cliff above the St. Lawrence River, facing the city. Today, the Citadel's functions are ceremonial, symbolic and reflect the heritage of the site. The Citadel has served as the home of the Royal 22nd Regiment since 1920 and as the secondary residence of the Governor General of Canada since 1872.

The Québec Citadel National Historic Site of Canada includes all of the south side of the fortifications from Dufferin Terrace on the southeast extreme to the far edge of the Citadel itself. Most of it was built in the years 1820-1832, although the bastions and cape polygon which were integrated into the design, date from 1720 and 1745 respectively. It is an imposing and complex military work following the Duke of Richmond's strategy for colonial defence as it was defined following the War of 1812.

The heritage value of the Québec Citadel lies in the completeness of its cultural landscape as a comprehensive defence work within the city's larger fortification system. Value resides in the clarity with which the principals of its strategic military design are both represented and legible : those of a 19th-century British defensive bastion (flanking, overcoming and commanding) as well as those of a mid 18th-century French powder magazine.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1991
Québec City Hall National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

The Québec City Hall is a majestic stone building built in 1895-6 in an eclectic style typical of the late-Victorian era. The building occupies a full block on a sloping site in Québec's upper town within the boundaries of the UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site. The building was enlarged with a two-storey addition in 1929.

The Québec City Hall was designated a national historic site of Canada in 1984 because its monumental and elegant exterior and richly decorated interior make it one of the most stately city halls in Canada.

The Québec City Hall reflects the eclectic opulence of the late-Victorian period in its modified Second Empire style, while its confident formality also demonstrates the competencies of local artisans and builders. The basic form of the building is classical, rooted in a French Beaux-Arts design philosophy, and its vocabulary draws from a number of sources, including the Romanesque Revival and Châteauesque styles. The lavishness of the exterior is continued in the splendid interior decoration as evident in its sumptuous council chambers.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1993
Québec Court House National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Québec Court House National Historic Site of Canada is a massive, late 19th-century masonry public building in the Second Empire Style. It occupies a prominent corner in the city's historic upper town, facing the Place d'Armes, and is in close proximity to other major administrative buildings of similar vintage and architecture. The building is adapted to its sloping site, rising four storeys along Saint-Louis Street and five storeys along du Trésor Street.

The heritage value of this site resides in its symbolism of the Québec justice system and in its architectural design. The Québec Court House was constructed in 1883-1887 to serve all levels of court in the local judicial district of Québec. In its large scale, elaborate architectural treatment, iconography and use of local materials, the court house conveyed the province's commitment to justice, its self-confidence and pride in its French Heritage. It served as a court house from 1887 to 1983.

The Québec Court House is a fine example of the French Second Empire Style, and is distinguished by its rich stonework, mansard roof, classical decoration and lively silhouette. The plans were prepared by Eugène-Étienne Taché, a celebrated architect in the employment of the provincial Department of Public Works. Its design was influenced by the successes of the Québec parliament buildings (built 1877-1886), also designed by Taché in the Second Empire Style.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1993
Québec Garrison Club National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Only private military club in Canada perpetuating the British colonial tradition of assembling military officers in a social environment, 1879.

The Québec Garrison Club is defined by the long masonry two-storey building which abuts the street, wrapping around the corner of Saint-Louis Street and Côte de la Citadelle, in Old Québec. This modified Château-style building shelters an expansive garden which, with the building, services one of Québec city's oldest private clubs.

The heritage value of the Québec Garrison Club resides in its strong military, architectural and social links with the fortified City of Québec and its function as a club as illustrated by its site, setting, club building with its modified Château-style design, associated buildings, garden and wooded grove. The Québec Garrison Club was established in 1879, when prominent Canadian militia officers acquired permission to meet as a social club at 97 Saint-Louis Street. First constructed as an office by the Royal Engineers (1816), this early building was raised one floor in 1893, and extended in 1921, and in 1948, to meet the need for increased space. The Québec Garrison Club is the centrepiece of a cultural landscape containing Messenger's Quarters (1857), a well building (1867), storehouse (1871), garden and woods. Fire destroyed the interior of the Québec Garrison Club building in 1954-55. It was restored by Parks Canada (1992-93), although a gas explosion (1994) caused further damage. It continues to function as a private club.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2003
Québec Martello Towers National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

The Québec Martello Towers National Historic Site of Canada, form part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada, in Québec City, Québec. It comprises three Martello towers at some distance from one another -Tower No. 1 stands on the Plains of Abraham, Tower No. 2 at the corner of Laurier and Taché Streets, and Tower No. 4 on Lavigueur Street. Built between 1808 and 1812, the three, freestanding Martello Towers are two storeys high with flat roofs designed to serve as a gun platform for one to four guns. They are sited to overlook the St Lawrence and Charles River respectively.

The Québec Martello Towers were designated a national historic site of Canada in 1990 because they form part of the fortifications of Québec.

The Québec Martello Towers illustrate the importance of Québec and its fortifications in the various strategic plans for the defence of British North America. The Citadel of Québec was key to the control of the interior of the northern part of the continent under both France and Britain. The Martello towers were constructed by the British to form a first line of defence within the ensemble of Québec's fortifications by preventing an attacker from drawing close enough to the walls to lay siege. Functional, and massively strong for their time, these towers were essentially elevated gun platforms. Towers No. 1 and No. 2 house interpretive displays.

©L'abbé Roberge, 2005
Québec Seminary National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

The Québec Seminary National Historic Site of Canada, located in the Historic District of Old Québec, is an educational institution comprising two sections: the Old Seminary established in 1663, and the 19th and 20th century additions surrounding it. The Old Seminary building has three wings which surround the Children's Courtyard. The 19th and 20th century buildings, which include the former Central Pavilion, the Grand Seminary, and the Pavilion, exhibit a variety of architectural styles, including the Greek Revival style. Despite different construction dates the complex is visually unified due to its configuration and the common stylistic features shared by many of the buildings.

The Québec Seminary, a community of priests, was founded in Québec by Monseigneur François de Montmorency-Laval, first bishop of New France. In 1663, the Grand Seminary was created to establish a parish ministry, mission work and a clergy. The 'Small Seminary' was founded, in 1668 to instruct young Aboriginals in French culture and language. Beginning in 1674, the establishment only housed young Frenchmen who wished to become priests. After the conquest there were further changes to the school's direction and the 'Small Seminary' began to accept all young people who wanted to study, not only those who wanted to become priests.

Dedicated to the cause of education, the Seminary founded the first French Catholic University in the country in 1852 and named it Université Laval in honor of Monseigneur de Laval. The university has had a considerable influence on the arts, letters, and sciences in Canada and moved to its current location in the district of Sainte-Foy-Sillery in 1970-1971. Despite many fires throughout the years, the Québec Seminary is still run as an educational institution by the Société des prêtres diocésains which ensures pastoral and priestly education at various levels. It is also home to the Centre de référence de l'Amérique française within the Musée de la civilization, and to a private high school, Le Petit Séminaire de Québec.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Nathalie Clerk, 1993
Rialto Theatre National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Rialto Theatre National Historic Site of Canada, located on du Parc Avenue in Montréal's Outremont neighbourhood, is an early 20th-century movie theatre designed in the Beaux-Arts style. Distinguished by its monumental columned façade, and inspired by the Paris Opéra, the five-storey theatre also features a richly decorated neo-Baroque interior, designed by the famed theatre designer, Emmanuel Briffa.

The Rialto Theatre is typical of Canadian public architecture of the early 20th century and is a fine example of the Beaux-Arts principles of symmetry, monumentality, smooth surfaces and rational, ordered planning. The Rialto is distinguished from contemporary cinemas by its main façade, imitating the decorative programme of the Beaux-Arts style Paris Opéra, and its interior plan created for a variety of functions. It was the first Montréal cinema to place the axis of the auditorium parallel to the façade; and the first to provide rooms intended for other functions (the dance hall, skittles and billiards rooms, and roof garden). Features associated with traditional theatres from the turn of the century include its rich interior décor, the steep pitch of its balcony and the use of theatre boxes.

The Rialto Theatre was built for the United Amusements Corporation Limited to plans by Raoul Gariépy, a prolific local architect responsible for the design of five other Montréal cinemas. While the engineering firm of Forgues and Guay designed the concrete structure, the rich, Baroque-inspired interior décor was designed and executed by Emmanuel Briffa, a Montréal artist responsible for over 200 cinema interiors across North America. The interior is of exceptional quality and preserves many original features, including paintings, mouldings, plaster relief work, and artificially illuminated panels.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Rivière-du-Loup Town Hall National Historic Site of Canada
Rivière-du-Loup, Québec

Rivière-du-Loup Town Hall National Historic Site of Canada, located on a prominent site in downtown Rivière-du-Loup, Québec, is an eclectic, two-storey red-brick city hall constructed in 1916. The building, was renovated and enlarged between 1972 and 1973.

The decision by the town of Rivière-du-Loup to build a new municipal building in the middle of the First World War symbolized the town's determination to modernize its municipal services and to increase its profile in the Lower St. Lawrence region of Québec. The eclectic styling of the elegant building, including references to the Arts and Crafts movement in its decoration, sets it apart from the surrounding commercial buildings in the town.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2009
Roberval Town Hall National Historic Site of Canada
Roberval, Québec

Roberval Town Hall National Historic Site of Canada is located near the shore of Lac Saint-Jean in the centre of the present town of Roberval, Quebec. The site consists of a large, three-storey brick building with steeply pitched metal roofs in a late interpretation of the Second Empire style. It was built in 1928-1929 to demonstrate the increasing importance of the town as an administrative centre and regional capital in the Lac Saint-Jean region.

The heritage value of this site resides in its historical associations with the city of Roberval as illustrated by its monumental design, form and materials. Constructed in 1928-1929 to a design by local architect Charles Lafond, the Roberval Town Hall reflects the prosperity and significance of the community. Conceived in the tradition of Second Empire style of civic buildings so popular in Quebec, the town hall is consistent in its design, form and construction with Beaux-Arts principles. The building features pavilion-crowned towers, classical ornamentation and a monumental staircase, to create an imposing civic building which proclaimed the town's growing importance as an administrative centre and regional capital in the Lac Saint-Jean region. It originally served a multi-functional role, housing the fire department, a theatre and a residential apartment, as well as serving its primary role in providing space for civic administration.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2004
Round Stone Windmill and House National Historic Site of Canada
Notre-Dame-de-l'Île-Perrot, Québec

Round Stone Windmill and House National Historic Site of Canada, also known as Parc Historique de la Pointe-du-Moulin, is located next to St. Louis Lake, a flat open site on the eastern point of Notre-Dame-de-l'île-Perrot, Quebec. The site consists of an extremely rare, surviving stone windmill and its associated miller's house dating from the 18th-century seigniorial regime. Both buildings are of rubblestone solid wall construction with small windows and low doors.

The Round Stone Windmill and House has existed as an interdependent building complex since at least the end of the 18th century. The windmill was designed by Stephen Starenky for Joseph Trottier Desruisseaux, who had the windmill constructed in 1712 to enable local residents to grind wheat into flour. The miller's house dates from the 1712-1791 period, possibly originating at the same time as the mill. Their heritage value resides in their in-situ survival as a building complex and in the individual structures as examples of an early type of construction.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park
Headquarters: Tadoussac, Québec and Rivière-Éternité, Québec

A rich diversity of marine life: whales, seals, plants and birds of all kinds.

An area to discover in depth! Since its creation in 1998, the marine park has worked to protect and present the marine environment of a section St. Lawrence Estuary and the Saguenay Fjord.

With a surface area of 1 245 km2, this large ecosystem is unique because of its sea bottom topography and its fjord. The confluence of waters of the St. Lawrence Estuary with those of the Saguenay Fjord creates exceptional oceanographic phenomena promoting significant biological diversity. Five cetacean species inhabit the waters of the marine park, including the St. Lawrence beluga, a protected species. In all, more than fifteen species of marine mammals have been reported, which bears witness to the marine park's ecological significance.

As well, the area surrounding the Saguenay St. Lawrence Marine Park has a long history of human inhabitation and is a place of importance in North American history. On this land, Amerindian and European civilizations came into contact, a contact that made a lasting impact.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, N. Clerk, 2002
Saint Joseph's Oratory of Mount Royal National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Saint Joseph's Oratory National Historic Site of Canada is a vast Roman Catholic pilgrimage site located on the north slope of Mount Royal in the city of Montréal, Québec. Dominated by a large domed basilica, the site is a landmark visible for miles around. Pilgrims progress through the gated entrance, along a sacred path and Way of the Cross, which traverses a garden on the east boundary, towards a grouping of buildings of which the basilica is the focus.

The heritage value of this site resides in its spiritual meaning and associated history as illustrated by the evolved cultural landscape comprised of gardens and buildings, with the Basilica as its focus. Value also resides in the integration of its built features with their setting within the natural landscape of Mount Royal.

Saint Joseph's Oratory originated with the construction of a small chapel conceived by Brother André and built by Brother Abundius from 1904 to 1912. This modest beginning was expanded throughout the first half of the 20th century with the assistance of many major architects and artists including landscape gardener Frederick G. Todd (garden, 1943-1946), architects Lucien Parent with Dom Paul Bellot and Ernest Cormier (basilica dome, 1937 and votive chapel 1946-1949 respectively), Louis Parent and Ercolo Barbiere (Way of the Cross, 1943-1953 and 1952-1958 respectively). Today it is a complex landscape with many parts, dominated by the Basilica (1924-1966), which was designed by architects Dalbé Viau and Alphonse Venne and decorated by artists Gérard Notebaert and Jean-Claude Leclerc.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Saint-André-de-Kamouraska Church National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-André, Québec

Saint-André-de-Kamouraska Church National Historic Site of Canada is located in Andréville, Quebec. Its simple rectangular plan with semi-circular apse makes it a classic example of the small Quebec churches built according to the "Récollet Plan". Its modest stone exterior is enlivened by a two-tiered, spired belfry.

Built between 1805 and 1811, to replace a chapel dating from 1791, this church was inspired by the parish churches built according to the Récollet plan during the French Regime. This design influence is seen in the simple plan with a nave and narrow semi-circular apse and in the façade with its centre door and belfry. The church's elaborate interior decoration executed between 1834 and 1836, provides one of the best-preserved examples of the work of sculptor Louis-Xavier Leprohon. The annex, constructed about 1822, was one of the first in rural Quebec and served as a presbytery and sacristy.

Saint-Eustache Church National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Eustache, Québec

Saint-Eustache Church is a Roman Catholic place of worship in the heart of the town of Saint-Eustache, Quebec, located at the confluence of the Mille Îles and Du Chêne rivers, northwest of the island of Montreal and Île Jésus. It played a central role in the decisive Battle of Saint-Eustache, which was fought on 14 December 1837 and marked the end of the 1837 Lower Canada Rebellion. In this colonial conflict, the rebels or patriotes rose up to challenge the powers of the British governor and his advisors.

During the battle, which opened on the heels of an initial British victory in Saint-Charles, British forces and government supporters led by Sir John Colborne, confronted Patriote combatants. Artillery scars left in the stonework of Saint-Eustache Church as a result of the battle, the building silhouette, and the church's location are all visual reminders of the fateful event.

The architecture of Saint-Eustache Church mirrors trends in vernacular religious architecture in Quebec through the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Its massive décor is a fine example of the influence of neoclassicism in the early 19th century, with its twin spires on either side, each topped with a belfry containing double lanterns. Behind this décor rises a church much altered since it was originally constructed.

It was built in 1780-83 on a Latin cross plan with a semicircular apse. The building was extended forward 8.5 metres (28 feet) when the present décor was added in 1831-33. After being heavily damaged by fire in 1837, the envelope was rebuilt several times, most recently when major work was undertaken in 1905-07. The aisles were extended, the sacristy was rebuilt, and a chapel was built behind the church; the entire roof was replaced at the same time. On the front, the bell towers were replaced, and the peak of the new roof was hidden by adding a small triangular pediment surmounted by a statue of Saint Eustace.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1982
Saint-Hyacinthe Post Office National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec

Saint-Hyacinthe Post Office National Historic Site of Canada is set on a sloping site in the downtown commercial heart of the community of Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec. Completed in 1894, it is an attractive two-and-a-half-storey building finished in rough-faced stone with a symmetrical principal elevation and an imposing offset corner tower. Its vigorous design incorporates Italianate detailing and is valued as a good example of the work of federal architect Thomas Fuller.

The Saint-Hyacinthe Post Office, built between 1889 and 1894 to house the post office, customs, and other government services, was designed to serve as a prominent landmark and to identify the federal presence in the town. The post office was part of a large-scale program of government construction in small communities and towns across Canada.

Of solid appearance, it was constructed under the direction of Thomas Fuller, who served as Chief Architect of the Department of Public Works from 1881 to 1896. The design, consisting of a corner tower, double entrance, ornamented gable, and the rugged texture of the limestone walls were typical of Fuller-designed post offices and show the high quality of design he brought to federal architecture.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1992
Saint-Jean-d'Iberville Railway Station (Grand Trunk) National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec

Saint-Jean-d'Iberville Railway Station (Grand Trunk) National Historic Site of Canada is a former passenger terminal located in the town of Saint-Jean-d'Iberville, Quebec. Built in 1890, and of sturdy appearance, it is a single storey, rectangular, brick building displaying elements of the Chateau style. The overhanging eaves form a projecting canopy that runs the length of the building on both the platform and street-facing elevations.

Saint-Jean-d'Iberville Railway Station was designated a national historic site of Canada in 1976 because it illustrates the expansion of the Grand Trunk Railway.

The Saint-Jean-d'Iberville Station symbolizes the presence of the Grand Trunk Railway in Quebec before its amalgamation in 1923 with the Canadian National Railways. The Grand Trunk was incorporated in 1853 to provide service through the Province of Canada to the east coast. It was created by combining new construction with existing lines, and eventually stretched from Sarnia, Ontario, to Portland, Maine. Typical of small stations of the period, the single-storey design features a waiting room, stationmaster's office, and baggage storage room all under one roof. Details of note include the large brackets that support the projecting canopy and the elegant doors and windows with their elongated proportions. The heritage value of this site resides in its historical associations as illustrated by its original design, materials and decoration. It now functions as the town tourist office.

©Archithème, 1998
Saint-Joachim Church National Historic Site of Canada
Châteauguay, Québec

Saint-Joachim-de-Châteauguay Church National Historic Site of Canada is located in Châteauguay, Quebec, near Montreal. Begun in 1775, this small stone church presents a balanced composition with a simple rectangular plan and a semi-circular apse. Its exterior features an attractive neo-baroque façade flanked by two three-storey towers with spired belfries. Set on a flat, triangular lot, the classically influenced east-facing main entrance overlooks the Châteauguay River.

The heritage value of Saint-Joachim-de-Cháteauguay Church lies in its physical fabric, for example its neo-baroque façade, and in its historical associations. Works carried out through the years were skillfully executed by master craftsmen sympathetic to the building's original design. Saint-Joachim de Châteauguay, built between 1774 and 1797 to replace a church dating from 1735, is the dominating feature in a rare, surviving landscape typical of French Regime towns, the traict carré or town square. The square is of an exceptional and rare coherence surrounded by the church presbytery, the convent and French regime houses. The church is associated with a number of significant historic events, including the Battle of Châteauguay. The church's interior decoration, executed by various artists, also provides examples of the work of sculptor Philippe Liébert.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, J. Dufresne, 2004


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, J. Dufresne, 2004


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, J. Dufresne, 2004
Saint-Joseph-de-Beauce Institutional Ensemble National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Joseph-de-Beauce, Québec

The Saint-Joseph-de-Beauce Institutional Ensemble National Historic Site of Canada is located in the centre of the town of Saint-Joseph-de-Beauce in the Beauce region of Québec. This institutional complex of five buildings built between 1865 and 1911, consists of a church surrounded by a convent, a presbytery, an orphanage and Lambert School. A few secondary buildings, the cemetery landscape features and part of the avenue du Palais and Sainte-Christine and Martel streets are also situated inside the ensemble.

Located in the town centre, the Saint-Joseph-de-Beauce Institutional Ensemble is an example of the important role Roman-Catholic institutions played in the development of small-town Canada in the 19th and early 20th centuries, through the social organization and improvement of these communities. The ensemble, consisting of the church, the presbytery, the convent, the orphanage, and the school, has helped to define the very character of the town of Saint-Joseph-de-Beauce. A regional centre for religious, community, and educational services, this group of buildings forms a distinct precinct reflecting the desire of clergy, religious communities, and laity alike to structure French Canadian village life around Catholic institutions.

Inspired by architectural styles popular during the 19th and 20th centuries and designed by notable Québec architects and artisans, these buildings are balanced and harmonious in their scale, materials and design. The Saint-Joseph church is executed in the Classical Revival style, the convent and orphanage are in the Second Empire style, the school is mainly Classical with an influence of Spanish Colonial Revival while the rectory is in the eclectic style, a synthesis of three main influences, Second Empire, the Château style and the traditional style of Québec. Built between 1865 and 1911, these five well-preserved buildings are also notable for their exceptional site overlooking the Chaudière River, where they integrate well with the natural environment. United by their history, function, and design, they constitute one of the most striking religious institutional complexes in Quebec.

Saint-Joseph-de-la-Rive Shipyard National Historic Site of Canada
Les Éboulements, Québec

Saint-Joseph-de-la-Rive Shipyard National Historic Site of Canada overlooks the St. Lawrence River in the village of Saint-Joseph-de-la-Rive, Québec. Set parallel to the waters edge at the foot of a steep hill, this small shipyard is dominated by a sawmill and a workshop housing a windlass. The site, levelled and triangular, is bounded by trees and the Boudreault River as it flows into the St. Lawrence.

Established in 1946, the Saint-Joseph-de-la-Rive Shipyard, one of the few surviving facilities of its period, continues to retain equipment previously used in the repair and wintering activities associated with small-scale coastal shipping along the St. Lawrence River. Representative of the many shipyards that once flourished in Québec, this was the primary location for the construction of schooners. First rigged with sails and later motorized, these wooden crafts played a crucial role in the coastal navigation of the St. Lawrence River and the economic development of various communities located on its shores. With only a population of 250 people in 1931, Saint-Joseph-de-la-Rive, formerly known as the "Éboulement-en-bas," was a desirable site for a shipyard due to its slight descent into the St. Lawrence and its heavily forested borders, which protected the area from strong winds.

No longer operational, the Saint-Joseph-de-la-Rive Shipyard once functioned year-round with the greater part of the repair and maintenance activity taking place during the winter months. The shipyard was the driving force of Saint-Joseph-de-la-Rive's economy, and as the leading producer of schooners in Québec, it contributed greatly to the economy of the province as a whole. The gradual disappearance of the schooner, competition with other means of transportation, and the prohibitive cost of building extra infrastructure to support larger steel boats resulted in the decision to close the yard in 1972. The yard and fittings have remained almost unchanged, and in 1986 the shipyard became a regional museum and interpretation centre known as the Charlevoix Maritime Museum.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Integral part of Québec's defence system; the seat of colonial executive authority for over 200 years.

The Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux National Historic Site of Canada is located on an escarpment that overlooking the lower town of Old Québec. The site includes the archaeological remnants of major building campaigns between 1620 and 1838 including four Saint-Louis forts, two châteaux Saint-Louis and Château Haldimand as well as secondary buildings, landscapes and services such as courtyards, drains and military works. The archaeological site, in an area delineated by present Jardins des Gouverneurs, the Wolfe Battery, the present Château Frontenac Hotel and the associated Dufferin Terrace, is also part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada.

The Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux occupies a part of the most important location in colonial Quebec. It is an archaeological site with remnants of the buildings and structures that occupied it from 1620 to 1838: this includes Saint-Louis forts (1620, 1626, 1636, 1692), Châteaux Saint-Louis (1648, 1694) and Château Haldimand (1784). The heritage value of this site resides primarily in its historical associations as illustrated by its strategic location and the many layers of archaeological remains the site holds, each layer witnesses a distinct period of use, including that of both the French and English regimes. The footprints, forms, materials, technology, functional and spatial relationships of individual remnants provide essential evidence of historic activity.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Saint-Ours Canal National Historic Site of Canada
Saint-Ours, Québec

Operational canal; 1933 (and remains of 1849) lock.

Opened in 1849, the Saint-Ours Canal is a continuation of the Chambly Canal, bypassing the final obstacle to navigation between the St. Lawrence River and Lake Champlain.

Known as the tenth lock of the Richelieu, the Saint-Ours Canal is situated between l'île Darvard and has been indispensable to international trade for over a century.

Saint-Ours Canal National Historic Site of Canada is situated on the east bank of the Richelieu River, 52 km from Chambly and 23 km from Sorel Québec. It is located in a 5-hectare park and primarily consists of one enclosed lock between the east bank of the Richelieu River and Darvard Island, as well as a dam.

The heritage value of Saint-Ours Canal lies in the inter-relationships of the components of its cultural landscape which have survived to this day: the Richelieu River, Darvard Island, the canal route, the dam, the buildings and archaeological remnants of canal activity. The Saint-Ours Canal was constructed by the Board of Works of the United Canadas as a commercial canal in 1844-1849, although the current lock dates from renovations in 1930-1933. Additional alterations occurred in 1960-1969 and 1974.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Saint-Sulpice Seminary and its Garden National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Saint-Sulpice Seminary and its Garden National Historic Site of Canada is a religious seminary and adjoining garden located on rue Notre-Dame Ouest in the heart of Old Montréal. The site consists of a large, U-shaped stone seminary building of austere appearance, enclosing formal, private gardens and a small courtyard. The stone building is an impressive example of 17th-century classical architecture built during the French Regime. Rectangular in plan, the convent gardens are characterized by symmetry, geometrically arranged subdivisions and intersecting cross-paths that lead to a central focal point. The complex is shielded from rue Notre Dame by a stone wall pierced by the main entrance.

The heritage value of Saint-Sulpice Seminary and its Garden resides in its historical associations and in its architectural integrity as an example of French Regime classicism. Since 1687, the seminary has served as the residence and administrative centre of the Messieurs of Saint-Sulpice who were the seigneurs of the Island of Montréal until the end of the seigneurial regime. The building was inspired by 17th-century classical French architecture, and its garden originally conformed closely to the medieval monastic garden. With the colonization of New France in the 17th century, this European garden tradition was carried to North America by religious orders such as the Jesuits and Sulpicians. The garden survives in its original location with its form virtually intact. The garden's relationship to the walls of the surrounding institution reflects the inward looking, self-reliant nature of these protected communities and their calm, spiritual quality. The ornamentation of the design and the interplay of geometry within this small structured landscape are reflective of 17th-century tastes.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Penitentiary National Historic Site of Canada
Laval, Québec

A monumental stone prison with a severe, forbidding presence, Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Penitentiary National Historic Site of Canada is located in Laval, Québec. Opened in 1873 in a facility previously constructed as a reformatory, it was Canada's second federal penitentiary, and served as the country's sole francophone correctional facility from 1873 until it closed in 1989.

Originally built in 1873, most of the present institution was constructed in the 1930s and 1940s. The architecture of the original facility, which planned for only an administration building and cellblock, was unimpressive, and the penitentiary has been altered so significantly that it has lost its original Greek cross cell block configuration.

The heritage value of Saint-Vincent-de-Paul Penitentiary National Historic Site lies in its witness to over a century of criminal justice in Canada in general and, particularly, Québec. Heritage value resides in the recognizable public presence of the institution which includes its exterior appearance, its site and its setting. It can also be found in the stories and the relics of life within the institution's walls.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2003
Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal National Historic Site of Canada
Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec

Operational canal; site of earlier 1843 canal.

To travel the Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal is to take a trip through over 150 years of history. Located west of Montreal, the canal links Lake Saint-Louis and the Lake des Deux-Montagnes, at the mouth of the Ottawa River.

Used for commercial purposes from its opening in 1843, the canal soon became an integral part of the Montreal-Ottawa-Kingston inland shipping route.

Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal on the Ottawa River consists of the canal walls and fixed wharf of a man-made waterway constructed in the mid 19th century to by-pass the Ste. Anne's Rapids in the east channel of the Ottawa River opposite the village of Ste.-Anne-de-Bellevue on the tip of Montreal Island.

Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal was designated a national historic site as part of Canada's national canal system and because it commemorates the role of the waterways during the 19th and 20th centuries as a part of the canal network that linked Montréal to New York, via the Saint-Lawrence, Rideau, Cataraqui and Ottawa rivers.

Its heritage value resides in the navigable route of the canal and in those vestiges of the canal that witness the materials, forms, and technology of its construction and operations as a commercial canal.

Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal was constructed by the Board of Works of the United Canadas in 1840-1843, and altered in 1879-1883, then repeatedly modernized throughout the 20th century. In 1963 its role changed from a commercial to a recreational canal. After it was acquired by Parks Canada in 1972, parts of the 1.6 hectare canal property not essential to canal operations and historical interpretation were subdivided and sold.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada 1999
Sainte-Anne Processional Chapel National Historic Site of Canada
Neuville, Québec

Sainte Anne Processional Chapel National Historic Site of Canada is located just off the road in pastoral surroundings at 714, rue des Érables, in Neuville, Québec. Featuring elements of vernacular and neoclassical architecture, it is a small early 19th-century rubblestone processional chapel with a gable roof, Roman-arched apertures, and a high belltower.

The heritage value of this site resides in the remarkable integrity of both the building and its site and in its design, composition, details and materials, as well as in its special function.

The Sainte Anne Processional Chapel illustrates a building type strongly associated with a medieval Christian tradition transplanted to New France during the seigneurial system and maintained in Québec until the mid-20th century. On the feast of Corpus Christi, and especially during the novena to Sainte Anne, worshipers come here in procession from the nearby parish church. This chapel, which displays elements of vernacular and neoclassical architecture, was built around 1830 on the site of an earlier one dating from 1697. With its original form, walls, window and door openings, façade, and three-part belltower, the Sainte Anne Processional Chapel is an eloquent reminder of this popular religious tradition, which has continued uninterrupted to this day.

Second Battle of Laprairie National Historic Site of Canada
La Prairie, Québec

On August 11th, 1691, a few hours after the attack on Fort Laprairie, Major Peter Schuyler and his indians suffered a severe defeat at the hands of the French and their indian allies, under command of Captain de Valrennes. The French lost the following officers: Lieutenants Le Varlet, Le Ber, Duchesne, Denys de la Bruére and Depeiras.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Michel Pelletier, 2001


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Michel Pelletier, 2001
Senneville Historic District National Historic Site of Canada
Senneville, Québec

Senneville Historic District National Historic Site of Canada evolved from a late-19th-century resort village located on the shores of the Lac des Deux-Montagnes, at the western tip of the Île de Montréal. The district comprises more than 1400 acres and includes at least 82 buildings constructed between 1860 and 1930 as part of about a dozen country estates. The main thoroughfare of the district is chemin Senneville, a country road that runs parallel to the shoreline of the lake. The buildings are set well back from the road within large, wooded estates, many of which back onto the lake. The buildings include large manor houses, as well as smaller secondary residences, agricultural outbuildings and landscape elements. The district features a range of picturesque landscapes and Arts & Crafts-inspired architecture. It includes the ruins of Fort Senneville and the Senneville windmill, the Morgan Arboretum, a nature park (l'Anse-à-l'Orme) and an agricultural park (Bois-de-la-Roche) all of which are components of estate lands, as well as Braeside, a late 19th-century golf course. These latter four elements form an extensive greenbelt along the southern and eastern edges of the district which separates it from adjacent residential and industrial development.

The estate owners of Senneville were the founders, presidents or directors of some of the largest commercial enterprises of the period, including the Bank of Montreal and the Canadian Pacific Railway. They included: Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott (1821-1893), Mayor of Montréal and Canada's third Prime Minister; John Lancelot Todd, professor of parasitology at McGill University; Louis-Joseph Forget (1853-1911), a stock broker and Conservative senator; and Montréal bankers Sir Edward Seaborne Clouston (1849-1912) and Richard Bladworth Angus (1831-1922).

The Senneville Historic District includes more than 30 major projects designed by a small group of eminent Montréal architects, landscape architects and urban planners, often working in collaboration with American designers. This group included some of Canada's greatest architects and designers of the period. They shared a picturesque approach to landscape design, an eclectic approach to architecture and an affinity for the Arts & Crafts Movement. At the heart of the Montréal group were brothers Edward Maxwell (1867-1923) and William Sutherland Maxwell (1874-1952), who designed dozens of Senneville buildings, sometimes working in partnership with Montréal architect George Cutler Shattuck (1864-1923). The 20 Maxwell buildings that survive constitute a unique example in a single location of their work. Montréal architect and professor Percy Erskine Nobbs (1875-1964), in partnership with George Taylor Hyde (1879-1944), designed the buildings and grounds of the J.L. Todd estate. Landscape architect and urban planner Frederick G. Todd (1876-1948), working with American landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted, designed the grounds of the Abbott/Clouston estate. Olmsted also designed the grounds of the Forget estate. Other eminent Montréal architects responsible for the designs of Senneville buildings included: James & H. Charles Nelson; Kenneth Rea (1878-1941); Harold Edgar Shorey (1886-1971); Samuel Douglas Ritchie (1887-1959); J.R. Hind; Robert Findlay (1859-1951); Frank R. Findlay; and David Shennan.

Built between 1860 and 1926, the Senneville estates and their buildings illustrate the development of the Arts & Crafts movement and Picturesque landscape design during this period in Canada. Because they were created by a small number of owners using a limited group of architects and designers over a relatively concentrated period of time, the buildings and landscapes of Senneville have a strong formal and stylistic coherence.

The Senneville Historic District includes several recognized masterpieces of Canadian architecture and landscape design, including "Bois-de-la-Roche", the Château-style residence built by Senator Louis-Joseph Forget; and the J.L. Todd estate.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1969
Sewell House National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Sewell House National Historic Site of Canada stands on a large lot on top of a slight knoll above the street facing Saint-Louis Street just below the Quebec Citadel. This reserved example of early nineteenth-century houses inspired by British classicism was the residence of Chief Justice Jonathan Sewell. The two-and-a-half storey, five-bay stone house forms part of the urban panorama of the 19th-century Upper Town of Québec.

Built in 1803-1804, Sewell House illustrates the early 19th-century development in the Upper Town of Québec. The original owner, Jonathan Sewell, may have been involved in the design, which placed the home within extensive grounds he owned through inheritance from his father-in-law, the former Chief Justice of Lower Canada William Smith. Jonathan Sewell, a lawyer, was appointed Solicitor General and Attorney General of Lower Canada before becoming a member of the Provincial Legislature in 1796. In 1808 he became Chief Justice and Chairman of the Executive Council. In 1854, his estate sold the house to the Crown. The buildings were then inhabited by the officers of the Québec Garrison Club, served as offices of the lieutenant governor and the Post Office Department and also as a school.

Sewell House is an important component of the upper middle-class settlement of Upper Town, typical of the early period of British administration. The homes on Saint-Louis Street and neighbouring streets constitute an urban panorama of small streets and similar houses of one, two and three storeys, set close to the sidewalk. In the early decades of the nineteenth century, the construction of dwellings for Anglophone elites introduced a new architectural vocabulary that included neoclassical elements such as symmetrical openings, low-pitched roofs, and a restrained appearance. The architectural character of Sewell house mirrors the penchant for British classical design so evident in nearby military buildings, as does its well-crafted ashlar masonry construction.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Christine Boucher, 2014
Sir John A. Macdonald's Summer Residence National Historic Site of Canada
Rivière-du-Loup, Québec

Sir John A. Macdonald's Summer Residence National Historic Site of Canada stands on a rocky outcrop overlooking the St. Lawrence River on the northern side of Fraser Street in Rivière-du-Loup, Québec. Standing on a grassed lot dominated by conifers, the house is typical of summer residences in the lower St. Lawrence River region. Canada's first Prime Minister after Confederation, the Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald (1815-1891) used this house as a summer residence between 1873 and 1890. The house served as a place of relaxation and work from which he was able to continue to govern the country.

The architecture results from the successful blending of two rectangular structures from different periods and architectural styles. The core structure of Sir John A. Macdonald's Summer Residence is an old farmhouse dating from about 1850. An imposing Second Empire style wing with mansard roof and dormers was added after the Macdonald's bought the house in 1882. The central gable was also likely added soon after. The house was not rebuilt or renovated after the Macdonalds sold it, and few architectural changes have been made over the years, either inside or out.

The heritage value of the house also resides in its association with Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, and in its historical value. It was probably John A. Macdonald's arrival in the area in the early 1870s that marked the high point of the popularity of Saint-Patrice as a resort. The Macdonalds' presence attracted friends and associates who settled nearby, many of them businessmen with interests in railway companies, as well as politicians and high-ranking officials. Following Macdonald's death, the house was sold in 1895 to Lord Thomas Shaughnessy, chairman of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company from 1899 to 1918. It later passed into the hands of Herbert Symington, first chairman of Air Transat. He purchased the house in 1939 and it remained in the Symington family until 1981 when it was acquired by Canadian Heritage of Quebec. In 2003, the house was inscribed within the Vieux Saint-Patrice heritage site, a district on the western side of Fraser Street containing forty farmhouses and summer residences associated with the popular resort community from the end of the 19th century.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2004.
Sir George-Étienne Cartier National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Double house of prominent 19th-century politician, 1830s.

Located at the corner of Notre Dame and Berri streets, in downtown Montreal, this masonry building occupies a little more than half of its urban lot. The two semi-detached houses occupying this lot had been part of a three house urban terrace on what had been the site of the Montreal citadel. One part of the house presents the life and work of Father of Confederation George-Étienne Cartier, upper-middle class Montrealer, politician and Father of Confederation, and the other has been restored to present the domestic setting of the Cartier family during the 1860s.

The heritage value of Sir George-Étienne Cartier National Historic Site of Canada resides in its association with George-Étienne Cartier, whose political career lasted from 1848 to 1873, and in its illustration of an upper-middle class Montreal home in the middle of the 19th century, showing both French and English architectural influences.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Sir Wilfrid Laurier National Historic Site of Canada
Laurentides, Québec

House interprets life of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Prime Minister of Canada (1896-1911).

The Sir Wilfrid Laurier National Historic Site of Canada is located in Saint-Lin-Laurentides, a town 50 km north of Montreal. The site commemorates one of the most important figures in Canadian political history, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the man often referred to as the father of modern Canada.

His long career straddles a period of major political and economic changes. As Prime Minister of Canada from 1896 to 1911, Laurier was instrumental in ushering Canada into the 20th century and in gaining greater autonomy for his country vis-à-vis its international partners.

Sir Wilfrid Laurier National Historic Site of Canada commemorates the birthplace of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, former Prime Minister of Canada. Located on 12th Avenue, Saint-Lin-Laurentides, 60 km north of Montreal, the site has been much changed since Laurier's childhood and now contains a small brick house in the Quebec Vernacular style, set on a landscaped lot.

The heritage value of Sir Wilfrid Laurier National Historic Site of Canada resides in its sense of place as the setting of Sir Wilfrid Laurier's childhood formation. Laurier was born in Saint-Lin-Laurentides in 1841, where he maintained a residence until 1865. This property was purchased by Laurier's grandfather at the beginning of the 19th century, and sold out of the family in 1865. The residence it contains today was constructed in 1870. The federal government acquired the two lots that formerly comprised the Laurier property in 1937-38 and demolished all of the buildings except the present house, then believed to be the former Laurier residence. It was relocated centrally on the adjoining lots which were landscaped by Frederick G. Todd, while ethnologist Marius Barbeau furnished the house in a manner which he felt reflected the handicraft tradition of rural Quebec. In its attempts to reflect the humble, rural roots of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Parks Canada created one of its first non-military, interpreted sites and an example of early twentieth-century historic site curatorship.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
St. George Antiochian Orthodox Church National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

St. George Antiochian Orthodox Church National Historic Site of Canada, located in the Villeray neighbourhood of Montréal, is a handsome brick church designed in a predominantly Byzantine style. Capped with a pediment and flanked by twin three-storey bell towers, the façade is distinguished by a grouping of three round-arch windows above an arched entranceway. The interior is a marriage of Byzantine and western influences, in its broadly arched central nave, decorated with a splendid program of murals and stained glass windows.

Serving the original and largest Syrian Orthodox community in Canada, St. George Antiochian Orthodox Church is this cultural community's earliest-known, purpose-built church that continues to fulfil its original role. Designed by architect Raoul Gariepy, the church combines Western and Byzantine styles. Through its remarkable architecture, interior design by Emmanuel Briffa, and its role as the home of many community organizations involved in humanitarian activities, this church importantly illustrates the continuity of a cultural tradition within a Canadian context. St. George Antiochian Orthodox Church, created by the Syrian Orthodox community as the physical embodiment of that group's ability to contribute to Canadian life through respect for and adaptation of their cultural values and traditions, is a place of special significance on the Canadian landscape.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, P. St. Jacques, 1995
St. George's Anglican Church National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

St. George's Anglican Church National Historic Site of Canada is a stone, Gothic Revival style building located amongst office blocks in the centre of Montréal, Quebec. Set under a steep gable roof, the church is a picturesque arrangement of asymmetrical forms built to a cruciform plan. Its open timber roof is a distinctive interior feature.

Constructed in 1869-1870 to plans by well-known architect William Tutin Thomas, this Anglican church is a skillful arrangement of asymmetrical forms, and displays a variety of picturesque visual effects. The rusticated stone cladding, typical of the High Victorian phase of the Gothic Revival style, adds to the richness to the exterior by providing texture, as well as enhancing the various sculpted details, evidenced in the complicated window mouldings. Interior features include the apsidal chancel, the unusual polygonal transept with door, and the main entrance situated on the west end, instead of through a north porch.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, C. Turnel
St. James United Church National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

St. James United Church National Historic Site of Canada is located on St. Catherine Street West within a commercial district of downtown Montréal, Quebec. It is a large, late 19th-century stone church, built in the High Victorian Gothic Revival style distinguished by two massive towers on the primary façade that border a prominent rose window set above a triple portal entrance.

Built between 1887 and 1888 as a Methodist church, St. James United Church is representative of the late phase of Methodism, an evangelical protestant movement founded in the mid-18th-century. By the late 19th century, Methodist congregations included many prosperous and well-placed members of society. Late-19th-century Methodism had matured from an earlier focus on revival meetings and religious conversions towards an emphasis on moderation, gradualism and the central place of church institutions in the religious life of the individual. Central among these institutions was the Sunday school, as seen clearly in St. James United Church, which fostered the education and spiritual development of all ages

St. James United Church illustrates Methodist church designs from the late Victorian era in its large scale, central location, eclectic Gothic Revival exterior, amphitheatre-based interior plan and the inclusion of elaborate sunday school facilities. The large scale and elaborate design of the church reflects the social, political and economic importance of its members. The amphitheatre plan of the nave and transept maintained the central role of the preacher in Methodism. The sunday school facilities and their location in the chancel reflected the importance of education and spiritual development within the church. Inspired by the Akron plan, a mid-19th century innovation in sunday school design, the room featured a semi-circular plan and a moveable wall system that accommodated both small-group classroom study and large-scale assemblies.

St. James United Church reflects the High Victorian phase of Gothic Revival architecture, in its eclectic use of historical references and its inspiration from both French and Italian Gothic architecture. On the exterior, a high gable slate roof adorns the polychromatic façades. The ornate plaster decoration of the interior, in the form of moulded and carved arches and ribs, suspended from roof trusses and without supporting pillars, has a High Victorian Gothic flourish. The interior is illuminated with natural light through stained glass windows decorated with wooden tracery and Gothic motifs, such as quatrefoils, along the walls at the floor and gallery level.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, P. St. Jacques, 1995
St. Patrick's Basilica National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

St. Patrick's Basilica National Historic Site of Canada is a large stone church built in 1843-47 in the French Gothic Revival style. It sits on a large lot occupying one half of a city block near the southwest corner of Réné-Lévesque Boulevard and Saint-Alexandre Street in a busy commercial sector of downtown Montréal, Québec. The striking basilica features various French Gothic Revival details such as a tall, central tower and a prominent rose window.

St. Patrick's Basilica was constructed in 1843-47 as the parish church of Montréal's growing Irish immigrant population. As soon as the church was completed, its clergy helped care for Irish immigrants suffering from a typhoid fever epidemic. Due to its continuing religious, charitable and educational vocations, St. Patrick's became the heart of the Irish community in Montréal. Its real and symbolic role was evident in its choice as the location for the funeral of Thomas D'Arcy McGee in 1868.

St. Patrick's Basilica is a very early and fully expressed example of the French Gothic Revival style in Canada. This revival style was based on extensive studies into 13th-century French architecture carried out by French scholars. They and their followers appreciated the period's rational approach to the relationship between architectural and structural elements. St. Patrick's illustrates this approach in the clarity of its structural elements, in its symmetry and in its verticality, and in the use of archaeologically correct decoration.

The designers of St. Patrick's Basilica, architect Pierre-Louis Morin and the Jesuit priest Félix Martin, incorporated the use of French Gothic Revival style in the building. Both men had sound knowledge of and interest in French medieval architecture through practice and, in the case of Martin, through close familial relationships with proponents of the style. The interior of St. Patrick's Basilica features remarkably complete examples of Québec ecclesiastical craftsmanship and artistry. It was originally decorated in 1845-51 and additions were made twice later in the century. The initial decoration was supervised by Victor Bourgeau. Antoine Plamondon created the paintings of the Stations of the Cross, and the main altar and two side altars were richly carved by Perrault, Paré and Ouellet.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1992.
St. Stephen's Anglican Church National Historic Site of Canada
Chambly, Québec

St. Stephen's Anglican Church National Historic Site of Canada is a small, stone church, combining Québec architectural traditions with the strong influence of the Palladian style. Located in the town of Chambly, southeast of Montréal in the Richelieu Valley, the church sits in a picturesque location, set back from the street and surrounded by trees and a very old cemetery. Fort Chambly National Historic Site of Canada and the Richelieu River are located in close proximity to the church.

St. Stephen's Anglican Church was erected in 1820 to serve the garrison at nearby Fort Chambly as well as a small civilian Anglican population. Side galleries and box pews were added in the 1830s to increase the amount of space available for the garrison. The design of the church is a simple and harmonious combination of characteristics from two architectural traditions. The materials, proportions and small scale of the church are reminiscent of traditional Québec church architecture, while the organization and ornamentation of the church exterior, and features such as the tiered steeple, the porch, and the window openings reflect the influence of the Palladian style brought to Québec by English immigrants.



©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Sulpician Towers / Fort de la Montagne National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Sulpician Towers / Fort de la Montagne National Historic Site of Canada is located on Sherbrooke Street West, in downtown Montréal, Quebec. The site is comprised of two two-storey 13-metre high stone towers, built in 1694, that were part of the original Fort de la Montagne. They each have one entrance and a single door with square panes on the north side, above which is a single multi-paned window. Both towers have eight-sided conical roofs topped with a cross. In addition, the west tower is topped by a weathervane.

Around 1676, the Sulpicians of Montréal Island founded a mission, known as the Mission de la Montagne, intended for the instruction of local aboriginals and their conversion to Catholicism. In 1681, M. François Vachon de Belmont was named a superior of the mission which housed over 200 Iroquois, Hurons and Algonquins living in cabins within the fort.

In 1694, a stone fort composed of four towers connected by a stone enclosure wall, was constructed to protect the new mission. The towers were built with gun-ports for the defence of the fort; however, they acted as a deterrent and were never used. In fact, the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre-Dame used the southwest tower for a school and the southeast tower as a residence for the nuns of the Congregation. With the increasing departure of the aboriginals between 1692 and 1705, the southeast tower was transformed into a chapel (1824) and the northwest and northeast towers were demolished.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1991
Symmes Hotel National Historic Site of Canada
Gatineau, Québec

Symmes Hotel National Historic Site of Canada is a two-and-a-half-storey early 19th century stone inn located at the juncture of Aylmer's (now Gatineau) main street in Québec, and the north shore of the Ottawa River. This charming building has long galleries on each side, an elegant bell-cast roof, and double chimneys. It now serves as a cultural centre for the local community.

Symmes Hotel was designated a national historic site of Canada in 1976 because for many years, this hotel occupied a privileged location on the route leading from Hull (now Gatineau) to Lake Temiscamingue.

Symmes Hotel was built in 1831 for Charles Symmes, founder of the town of Aylmer. For many years travellers stopped at the inn, known then as the Aylmer Hotel, before crossing to the head of Lake Deschenes by steamboat in summer, or by sleigh in winter, and continuing on to the trading posts of northwestern Québec. In 1973 the Western Québec Development Society (Societé d'aménagement de l'Outaouais) salvaged the building from ruin and restored it.

The heritage value of Symmes Hotel National Historic Site of Canada resides in its historic associations with its role as an inn and stopping place on a busy early transportation route. Value lies in its form and special features, its materials and composition, its site and setting.

©Paolo Porzio
Têtu House National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

The Têtu House is an elegant, three-storey, stone townhouse built in 1852-4 in the Neoclassical style and decorated inside and out with Greek Revival motifs. The house sits on a narrow urban lot in the historic upper town of the city of Quebec.

The Têtu House, designed by Charles Baillairgé in 1852, was designated a national historic site in 1973 because it is one of the most remarkable examples of the Neoclassical town houses built during the mid-19th century.

Têtu House is a particularly elaborate example of the many large, urban town houses built for prosperous Canadian merchants during the 1850s. Designed by prominent Québec architect Charles Baillairgé for local merchant Circe Têtu, the residence exemplifies Baillairgé's use of Greek Revival motifs. In an approach typical of Baillairgé and other mid-19th-century Canadian architects, the house retains its Neoclassical form, composition, and treatment of materials, drawing on the Greek Revival vocabulary only for its decorative detailing.

Charles Baillairgé was one of the principal architects in Québec during the second half of the 19th century. He acted as City Engineer for 37 years and was responsible for the design of many private residences, public buildings and religious structures in the city. A member of the famous Baillairgé family of architects, he was trained by his uncle Thomas Baillairgé and by Abbé Jérôme Demers. Baillairgé was assisted in the construction of Têtu House by master joiner and general contractor Isaac Dorion, master mason Pierre Chateauvert, master plasterers Thomas Murphy and John O'Leary and master painters William and James McKay.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, C. Cournoyer, 2009
The Former Lamaque Mine and the Bourlamaque Mining Village National Historic Site of Canada
Val-d'Or, Québec

The site is located in the city of Val-d'Or in the administrative region of Abitibi-Témiscamingue in the province of Quebec. It lies in the southeast part of the city where the residential and mining areas meet. It comprises two adjacent and related sections: the old Lamaque mine, and the mining town of Bourlamaque. Bourlamaque was planned and built by the Teck-Hugues Company to serve the gold mine that went into production in the mid 1930s.

Covering an area of 22 hectares, Bourlamaque Mining Village is an example of a planned industrial town, and traces of its past as a company town are still evident. Planned in 1935, the layout is efficient and orderly, comprised of a grid two long avenues running east-west and five perpendicular cross streets Laneways running between the avenues and streets provide parking at the back of the houses Maple trees line the streets and enhance the landscape.

The former Lamaque Mine and the Bourlamaque Mining Village in Val-d'Or, Quebec is of historical significance because:

it comprises a significant number of in situ industrial and residential resources, forming a well-preserved mining landscape suggestive of the gold rush that took place in northwestern Quebec, an important region in the history of Canadian mining;

it is a rare and well-preserved example of a mining company town, a type of town that marked the development of many Canadian communities;

it is an example of a planned single-industry town from the interwar years with features such as an orthogonal plan, residential land-use segregation according to social hierarchy, and harmonious architecture within each neighbourhood, which is highlighted by the contrast between the well-to-do houses of the mine's management with the horizontal-log dwellings of its workers;

it illustrates the community engagement that marked the Canadian heritage conservation movement in the 1960s and 1970s.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
The Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site of Canada
Lachine, Québec

Stone warehouse used as depot, 1803; North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company.

Located to the west of the Island of Montréal along Lake Saint-Louis, The Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site testifies to the apogee of the fur industry in the Montréal region in the 18th and early 19th centuries. The old stone warehouse dates from 1803.

Alexander Gordon, ex-clerk and stockholder of the North West Company had it built to store trading goods and furs. In 1833, the warehouse became the property of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Lachine occupied a strategic position on the fur route as a departure and arrival point for trading expeditions. It was also an important centre for storing the Montréal merchants' furs and for trading goods. Today, this unique warehouse houses an exhibition that enables visitors to relive the Montréal fur epic.

Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site of Canada is a rectangular single-storey, stone warehouse located in an attractive park-like setting on the banks of the Lachine Canal on St. Joseph Boulevard opposite the Convent of the Sisters of Sainte-Anne in Lachine on the west end of Montréal Island.

The heritage value of Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site of Canada resides in the surviving 18th-century form, and fabric of the warehouse building as they illustrate the history of the fur trade in Montréal.

Built in 1803 by Alexander Gordon of the Northwest Company, this warehouse was acquired by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1833, then by the Sisters of Sainte-Anne, who owned it from 1861-1977. When the building was modernized early in the 20th century, most of its original openings and surfaces disappeared. They were restored by Parks Canada (1978-1984) after a fire demolished all but the stone walls and half of the roof structure.

The Main National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Main is a 6-kilometre long district along Boulevard Saint Laurent in Montreal from la rue de la Commune in the south to la rue Jean-Talon in the north where consecutive waves of immigrants settled, establishing businesses and homes. The district is characterized by a mixture of small factories, shops, theatres and restaurants established and developed over time by numbers of peoples from a variety of ethnic backgrounds.

The heritage value of the district resides in its association with successive waves of immigrants and their efforts to establish lives in Canada. The district is characterized by a variety of functional building types, usually of a modest scale, and their successive redevelopment by numbers of peoples from a variety of ethnic backgrounds, imparting to the district a distinctly cosmopolitan flavour.

©Ministère de la Culture, des Communications et de la Condition féminine, Jean-François Rodrigue, 2005
The Sainte-Croix-de-Tadoussac Mission Church National Historic Site of Canada
Tadoussac, Québec

The Sainte-Croix-de-Tadoussac mission church occupies a small portion of the large cemetery of the Sainte-Croix parish council: the church is at the corner, in the southwest portion of the cemetery, and the current parish church is to the northeast. The church is painted in the same colours as the Hotel Tadoussac, a renowned tourist destination. The church faces Tadoussac Bay, and the south shore is visible beyond the St. Lawrence. The overall view is spectacular.

The Sainte-Croix-de-Tadoussac mission church and its contents are of historical significance because:

it is the only extant original place of worship bearing witness to Jesuit missionary work in remote areas of New France and the conversion of the Montagnais (Innu) to Christianity;

its features and construction methods make it an exceptional mission church from the era of New France, as well as the oldest wooden church in Quebec and in Canada;

constructed during the era when Tadoussac was an active centre of the fur trade, it speaks to the relationship between the fur trade and the missionization efforts of the Jesuits, both intimately linked with Aboriginal peoples;

it is an excellent example of a mission post, where in the mid 19th century the Oblate Missionaries of Mary Immaculate established themselves, continuing to serve the religious needs of the indigenous population.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2001
Trafalgar Lodge National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Trafalgar Lodge National Historic Site of Canada is located on a treed corner lot in the historic Westmount area of Montréal, Québec. Built in the mid-19th century, Trafalgar Lodge is a picturesque one-and-a-half storey brick villa built in the Gothic Revival style. The low-lying house has a steeply pitched front-sloping gable roof with gables, dormers and decorative chimney pots.

A rare example of a Gothic Revival villa in Québec, Trafalgar Lodge was designed by Toronto architect John Howard as a country estate for a prosperous businessman. The asymmetrical villa, with its red brick and white trim, has a bold profile made up of prominent gables, dormers and clustered chimneystacks. The house blends ecclesiastical and secular Gothic elements to create a unique version of the Gothic Revival style — the lancet window and rose window are ecclesiastical in design, while the label mouldings are more appropriate to the secular nature of the building. The strongly sculptural manner in which these details are executed makes them quite distinct.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Trestler House National Historic Site of Canada
Vaudreuil-Dorion, Québec

Trestler House National Historic Site of Canada is located on a point of land jutting into a bend of the Ottawa River, in the centre of Vaudreuil-Dorion, Québec, near the boundary line that once distinguished these former communities. A fine example of traditional Québec architecture, it is a one-and-a-half-storey, gable-roofed rubblestone house that dates from the end of the 18th century.

The heritage value of Trestler House lies in its illustration of the qualities of the traditional "Maison québécoise", or vernacular Quebec domestic architecture, from the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Trestler House was built by John Joseph Trestler in three stages: the centre portion in 1798, the western wing in 1805, and the eastern wing in 1806. An ambitious merchant determined to prosper from growing trade through Montréal, Trestler built this prestigious house on the Ottawa River, the major river highway to Upper Canada and the West. Trestler's descendents continued to occupy this house with little change until 1927. In 1984 it became the property of the Trestler Foundation, a private trust created to ensure its preservation and public accessibility as a heritage building.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Trois-Rivières Historical Complex National Historic Site of Canada
Trois-Rivières, Québec

Trois-Rivières Historical Complex National Historic Site of Canada is located in the historic district of Trois-Rivières, in the Mauricie region of Quebec. The site consists of five buildings: De Gannes House, the Hertel de la Fresnière House, the Recollet Convent, the Recollet Church, and the Ursuline Convent. Constructed in the French Regime style, the one-and-a-half to two-and-a-half storey stone structures are visually integrated through their steep gable roofs with overhanging eaves, dormer windows, and multiple chimneys, as well as through their regularly-spaced multi-light windows, and centred entrance doorways.

The heritage value of the Trois-Rivières Historical Complex resides in its architecture and design, which represent a unique example of urban construction in the French Regime style in Canada. Strategically positioned at the confluence of the St. Maurice and St. Lawrence rivers, the town of Trois-Rivières was developed under the French Regime as a transportation hub, first for the fur trade in the 17th century, and later for the colony's nearby iron works.

During this period of growth, a number of residences and religious institutions were erected on the town's rue Notre-Dame, today known as rue des Ursulines. The surviving buildings associated with this site were all built between 1700 and 1829, in the French Regime style of the time. The first of these buildings constructed was the Ursuline Convent, which was constructed in 1700, and underwent various modifications and additions between 1714 and 1960. The foundation wall is the only remnant of the 1700 structure, due to fires in 1752 and 1806. The Recollet Convent was built in 1742, followed by the church in 1754. The monastery and the church were shared by the Recollets and the Anglicans between 1760 and 1777, and later, between 1779 and 1823, they served as a hospital, shop, tribunal, prison, shelter and as administrative buildings. The Anglicans restored the monastery and the church in 1823, and, in 1830, the church was consecrated to Saint James. The house of French naval officer Major Georges de Gannes was built in 1756, and he resided there until 1760. The house's stone construction was later roughcast. Lastly, Hertel de la Fresnière House was built between 1824 and 1829 by François Lafontaine, who named it after the French officer, Joseph-François de la Fresnière, the property's original owner (in 1668). The Ursulines took possession of the property from 1899 to 1981 and today it serves as an interpretative centre. Having survived a devastating fire in 1908 that destroyed much of Trois-Rivières' old town, these five structures serve as a visual reminder of the urban landscape of 18th-century French Canada.

©Ursulines Monastery, Giovanni Variottinelli, August, 2008.
Ursuline Monastery National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

The Ursuline Monastery National Historic Site of Canada is an impressive complex of 17th-, 18th-, and 19th-century stone buildings located at 18 Donnacona Street on the brow of the hill in Québec City's historic Upper Town. Its chapel altar is a masterpiece of French Canadian wood sculpture created in 1730.

The heritage value of the Ursuline Monastery National Historic Site of Canada resides in the architecture of the complex, particularly those 17th-century vestiges which reflect its historic roots, its architectural excellence as a pre-1880 building group, and the superb craftsmanship of its chapel altar. An Ursuline Monastery was initially constructed on this site in 1641-42 just two years after its Canadian founder, Marie de l'Incarnation, and her companions arrived in Canada. The original convent was destroyed by fire in 1650 as was its successor. This second convent, destroyed in 1686, nevertheless established the footprint of the present complex which now consists of 15 buildings constructed in six successive stages between 1687 and 1850. Vestiges of each of these stages survive. This complex contains high quality work by several noted Quebec craftsmen including Charles Baillargé, Noel and Pierre-Noel Levasseur.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2000
Van Horne / Shaughnessy House National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

The Van Horne / Shaughnessy House National Historic Site of Canada is located in downtown Montréal, Quebec. This symmetrical composition consists of two semi-detached houses finished in the Second Empire style, later merged into one large mansion. Featuring end pavilions, bays and cast iron detailing cresting at the roofline, this elegant building is now surrounded on three sides by buildings and gardens of the Canadian Centre for Architecture.

Designed and built by William T. Thomas in 1874, Van Horne / Shaughnessy House commemorates a time when Boulevard René-Lévesque (then Dorchester Street) was lined with large opulent houses surrounded by landscaped gardens. The mansard roof, two-storey bay windows, symmetrical façades and stone textured walls speak to the architectural influences of the time, the Second Empire style, and the Montreal greystone tradition. The west house was originally built for Duncan McIntyre while the east house was first occupied by William Van Horne and later T.G. Shaughnessy, all of whom were associated with the construction and consolidation of the Canadian Pacific Railway.

Over the years, several changes affecting the interiors have been made. The historic building, once threatened with demolition in the 1980s, was rehabilitated and integrated into the new building of the Canadian Centre for Architecture following the drawings of architect Peter Rose. The Van Horne / Shaughnessy House now serves as reception rooms and offices for the Canadian Centre for Architecture museum.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Andrew Waldron, 2014
Voltigeurs de Québec Drill Hall National Historic Site of Canada
Québec, Québec

Manège militaire Voltigeurs de Québec is a large Chateau-style armoury located at 805 ave. Wilfrid-Laurier in Québec City. Situated just outside the old city walls at the edge of the Plains of Abraham, the drill hall overlooks its original parade square with which it is inextricably linked. The building's fanciful design, with high pitched roof, stone walls and pinnacled turrets has made it a Canadian architectural icon.

Manège militaire Voltigeurs de Québec was designated a National Historic Site in 1986 because it is the precursor of the Chateau Style in Canada.

The heritage value of Manège militaire Voltigeurs de Québec National Historic Site of Canada resides in its physical manifestation of those design elements that have come to be considered hallmarks of the Canadian Chateau style of architecture. The Manège militaire Voltigeurs de Québec was designed by Quebec architect Eugène-Étienne Taché for Canada's Department of Public Works and was completed in 1887 in a style intended to evoke the Renaissance-era chateaux of France. Unique among Canadian drill halls, it emphasized the French roots of Quebec City. The drill hall received an addition in 1913.

©Ministère des Loisirs


©Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs du Québec, J. Gagnon, 2004
Waapushukamikw National Historic Site of Canada
Baie-James, Québec

Waapushukamikw National Historic Site of Canada, located in an area of gentle countryside along the Témiscamie River in the Québec Mid-North, is a white quartzite hill that stands out clearly in a relatively flat, forested landscape. Also known as the Colline Blanche, the hill is approximately 40 metres high with a width of 400 metres, extending 1200 metres along a northeast/southeast axis. Its three ridges, roughly 100 metres apart, are relatively bare, contributing to its clearly whitish appeareance. Abutting the main peak is a quarry containing millions of fragments of Mistassini quartzite, and along the foot of the hill are a number of natural cavities, the largest of which is the smooth-marble walled cave, the Antre de Marbre. This area has only been habitable since 5050 B.C.E.

Located in an area that became inhabitable after the glacial melt, about 7000-6500 years before present, Waapushukamikw is a source of Mistassini quartzite, a fine-grained and mainly white stone that generally presents a waxy surface and is translucent in thin sections. In reference to its white colour and waxy texture, the Cree call this stone Wiinwaapskw, meaning "animal fat". Mistassini quartzite reacts predictably to blows from artisans, making it a material of choice for tool makers. While aboriginal craftsmen could produce most of the stone tools they needed for their activities from Mistassini quartzite, the lack of animal resources in the immediate vicinity of the hill did not lend the site to prolonged occupancy. Therefore, after laying in supplies of quartzite, archaeological evidence suggests that the craftsmen and their families preferred to move on to more accomodating, temporary places where the craftsmen would transform the stone into tools. This enabled families or groups to make the journey back to their customary place of residence without transporting large portions of stone.

It is believed that these early stonecutters did not need to dig the hill to obtain the materials they required. Archaeological evidence has shown that the stone needed could have been layed into by gathering the blocks that detached naturally, particularly from the erosion talus of the main peak, commonly known today as Rogers Quarry. It is possible that they sometimes took things further, possibly leaving the site with finished objects. Finished tools, such as scrapers and endscrapers, found at the bottom of the hill suggest the preparation of handles or shafts, customary casings for objects such as knives and points. Interest in Mistassini quartzite manifested very early among various Aboriginal peoples, and its use quickly spread throughout much of northeastern North America.

Located at the base of the hill is the Antre de Marbre, the largest cave at Waapushukamikw. Known as Tchichémanitououitchouapi, or house of the Great Spirit, to the area's aboriginal peoples at the time of the European re-discovery in the 18th century, this cave is a place of spiritual significance and a respected place of memory for the Cree community of Mistissini. The large, smooth-marble walled Antre de Marbre, which served as a place for shamanistic rites and rituals, has an aura that testifies to the religious beliefs of the northeastern Algonquians in general and the Cree of Mistissini in particular.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Geneviève Charrois, 2008


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Geneviève Charrois, 2008
Westmount District National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Westmount District National Historic Site of Canada is situated on the southwest slope of Mount Royal, mostly northwest of Sherbrooke Street, and forms part of the City of Westmount. The site is representative of a prosperous Victorian and post-Victorian suburb in Canada, and is defined by its architectural and landscape heritage reminiscent of the period between 1890 and 1930. A local architectural and planning board regulated development beginning in 1914. Defined by its high-quality residential buildings, notable public buildings, schools, and places of worship, the district also features grid-like streets and its network of landscaped public and private green spaces.

The heritage value of Westmount District lies in its ties to the development of the social and intellectual life of Montreal's middle-class English community in the early 20th century. Examples include the regulated construction of residential and public buildings designed and built in a wide variety of architectural styles by prominent Montreal architects and builders; and landscape features, such as parks and gardens, the Belvedere and the stairs going up the mountain. The district's visual coherence was retained through the establishment of a local architectural and planning board which regulated development in the area beginning in 1914. Overall, Westmount displays a balanced setting for urban living with large green spaces and aesthetically pleasing public buildings conducive to the harmonious development of a sound community life.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, N. Clerk, 1999
Wilfrid Laurier House National Historic Site of Canada
Victoriaville, Québec

Located in the old municipality of Arthabaska, (now amalgamated with Victoriaville) Quebec, the Wilfrid Laurier House National Historic Site of Canada is a two-storey building in the Italianate style. This elegant red-brick residence, once Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier's home, sits on a gracious lot behind a semi-circular driveway framed by mature maple trees.

The Wilfrid Laurier House was designated a national historic site of Canada in 1999 because it is directly associated with a national historic figure, namely, one of the former prime ministers of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier.

Built between 1876 and 1877 to Laurier's specifications, the building served as his principal residence for 20 years and illustrates his success as a lawyer, in the Arthabaska region. This house was Laurier's principal home until elected prime minister in 1896, after which he visited regularly and used it as his summer home until his death in 1919. The house was eventually given to the Quebec government and used as a museum dedicated to the memory of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. After the building opened as a museum in 1929 some alterations were made to accommodate the museological functions.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Wilson Chambers National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Wilson Chambers National Historic Site of Canada, is located on a corner lot in downtown Montréal, is a Gothic Revival style commercial building with Italianate and Second Empire influences. It is distinguished by its four-and-a-half-storey stone massing, its numerous pointed arch window openings, smooth expanses of glass, and mansard roof.

Popular in the latter half of the nineteenth century, the High Victorian phase of the Gothic Revival style arrived in Canada in the years just prior to Confederation and coincided with a period during which many prominent religious, civic, and scholastic institutions were constructed. While numerous churches and institutional buildings were erected in this style, Gothic Revival commercial buildings were a rarity.

Designed by architect R.C. Windeyer and built in 1868, Wilson Chambers is one of the few remaining examples of a commercial building designed in the Gothic Revivial style. An example from the High Victorian phase of the Gothic Revival style, its defining features include its strong vertical lines and use of contrasting stone, as well as its numerous pointed arch window openings. The building's eclectic design also integrates features from other architectural styles, such as the round-headed Italianate-style window openings, the Second Empire-style mansard roof, and the classical entablature. Wilson Chambers was extensively renovated in the latter half of the 1990s in a manner that was sympathetic to its original design.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, CIHB/IBHC, 1990
Windsor Station (Canadian Pacific) National Historic Site of Canada
Montréal, Québec

Windsor Station is a late 19th-century, stone railway terminal and Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) head office built in the Romanesque Revival style. It is prominently located at the corner of Canada Place in downtown Montréal.

Windsor Station was designated a national historic site in 1975 because it is an excellent example of the Romanesque Revival style of architecture.

Built for the CPR in 1888-89 to designs by American architect Bruce Price, Windsor Station was one of the earliest major buildings in Canada to use the Richardsonian Romanesque Revival style. The original portion by Price set the style for the structure and for the principal additions made in 1900-06, to designs by Edward Maxwell, and in 1909-14 to designs by W.S. Painter. The additions are compatible with the original design, reinforce its Romanesque Revival character and establish bridges between the Romanesque Revival and the Château Style of later CPR buildings.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Peter Waddell, 2000
Wreck of RMS Empress of Ireland National Historic Site of Canada
Saint Lawrence River, Québec

Wreck of RMS Empress of Ireland National Historic Site of Canada is located on the floor of the St. Lawrence River near Rimouski, Quebec. Situated 8.3 kilometres offshore at a depth of 45 metres, the once opulent vessel rests on its starboard side at a 65-degree angle. Operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway this large, elegant, steam powered passenger ship sank in May 1914 with great loss of life.

The Wreck of RMS Empress of Ireland is a relatively intact and rare example of an ocean liner from the "golden age" of passenger travel in the North Atlantic, during the early years of the 20th century. In service, this majestic ocean liner could accommodate 1,580 passengers in three classes, along with its primary cargo the Royal mail, as it traveled between Canada and the United Kingdom. Royal Mail Steamer (RMS) Empress of Ireland and her sister ship the Empress of Britain were the first passenger liners built specifically for the Canadian Pacific Line, which provided international passenger transport to the growing flow of emigrants from Europe to Canada. From May and June of 1906, the two large Empress ships offered a fast, comfortable weekly service from Liverpool and became popular ships on this route. Not built to be the fastest or the largest liner on the North Atlantic, the RMS Empress of Ireland was still competitive with cruise ships from other countries. The first class facilities were just a notch below those provided by ships such as Olympia and Titanic. The Empress's second- and third-class accommodations suited the needs of the travelling public and combined affordability, convenience, comfort and speed. The career of the RMS Empress of Ireland ended in the early morning hours of May 29th 1914 when it collided with the Norwegian collier the SS Storstad. After being struck on its starboard side by the former icebreaker, the vessel listed on its side and sank below the surface fourteen minutes later. The sinking of the RMS Empress of Ireland took the lives of 1,012 of the 1,477 passengers.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, M.-A. Bernier, 1997
Wreck of the Elizabeth and Mary National Historic Site of Canada
Anse aux Bouleaux, Québec

Wreck of the Elizabeth and Mary National Historic Site of Canada is an underwater archaeological site located on the seabed of Anse aux Bouleaux, not far from Baie-Trinité, in the Côte-Nord region of Québec. It is comprised of a section of the Elizabeth and Mary's hull above and around which were found more than 4,000 artifacts that sank with the ship in 1690. These artifacts, witnesses of Sir William Phips' tentative invasion of Québec in 1690, were taken from the site and are now preserved by the Centre de conservation du Québec.

The historic value of this site resides in the survival of the ship's remains found in their initial location. The wreck of the Elizabeth and Mary is an important discovery for the history of Canada because it is one of the rare witnesses to the ill-fated expedition led by Sir William Phips in Québec in 1690.

In 1689, during the war between France and England, New France had proposed a plan to conquer New York in order to take control of the fur trade and fishing territories in North America. The various raids undertaken at the time caused panic among the population of these colonies who decided to organize an expedition to seize New France. In August 1690, a fleet of 32 ships left Nantasket, situated at the south entrance of Boston Bay, to attack Québec. The expedition failed and the fleet renounced its project of taking the City of Québec. During the voyage back, the fleet was struck by smallpox and a series of storms. Four ships and two companies were completely lost at sea.

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Last Updated: 02-Jul-2015