Parks Canada History
Park Summaries

Park Summaries
New Brunswick

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All text and photos are copyrighted by Parks Canada or the Canadian Register of Historic Places (except as noted) and were extracted from either the Parks Canada or Canada's Historic Places Websites. Parks with a grey background are managed by Parks Canada.



©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, HRS 0544, 1993
1 Chipman Hill National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

1 Chipman Hill is a mid-19th-century brick townhouse. It is located at the top of Chipman Hill in the historic section of downtown Saint John.

1 Chipman Hill was designated a national historic site in 1984 because of the scale and variety of the illusionist paintings in its interior.

The interior of 1 Chipman Hill provides a rare and early example of the type of artistic wall and ceiling paintings favoured in affluent homes in late 19th century domestic interiors of the affluent middle class. Likely created in the 1870s, the paintings reflect the High Victorian taste for painted illusions of textures and depths, imitations of materials, and revivals of historical motifs.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1987
Arts Building National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

The Arts Building is a large, three-storey, classically inspired masonry structure located on College Hill, at the centre of the picturesque, hillside, campus of the University of New Brunswick. Noted as the oldest university building in Canada still in continuous use, the Arts Building overlooks the city of Fredericton and the Saint John River.

The Arts Building was designated a national historic site in 1951 because it is the oldest university building in use in Canada.

The heritage value of the site resides in its historical associations with the beginnings of tertiary education in Canada as illustrated by its site, design and materials. The Arts Building was built in 1826-8 for King's College, a post-secondary institution that became the University of New Brunswick in 1860. The building opened and the first classes were held there in 1829. A mansard roof providing the building with a third storey was added in 1876. For many years the building housed the offices and living quarters of the university president. It is presently used by the University of New Brunswick as administrative offices.

The building is also known as Sir Howard Douglas Hall, so-named in honour of Sir Howard Douglas (1776-1861), Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick and founder of King's College, who spearheaded the construction of the Arts Building in the 1820s.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2001
Augustine Mound National Historic Site of Canada
Metepenagiag Mi'kmaq Nation, New Brunswick

Augustine Mound National Historic Site is an archaeological site located within the reserve land of the Metepenagiag Mi'kmaq Nation, New Brunswick, on the north side of the Little Southwest Miramichi River across from the present Mi'kmaq community. It includes a circular ritual site surrounding a slightly elevated burial mound that sits on low terrace near the junction of the Northwest and Little Southwest Miramichi Rivers. Augustine Mound National Historic Site of Canada is located 700 metres east of the Oxbow National Historic Site of Canada.

The heritage value of Augustine Mound NHSC lies in its longstanding connection to a distinctive religious phenomenon rarely seen in eastern Canada, and in its longstanding connection with spiritual and community life in Mi'kmaq culture as illustrated by its setting, site, form and composition, the nature of the archaeological evidence its mound contains, and in its long term role as a sacred site.

Augustine Mound National Historic Site is a ceremonial burial mound created around 2,500 years ago. It is an eastern manifestation of the Adena burial tradition centred in the Ohio Valley. The site consists of a circular area approximately 30 m. in diameter centred on a low mound, surrounded by a circular ceremonial area. It contains human remains and archaeological artifacts. Originally excavated in 1975-76, only part of the mound remains undisturbed. This is in the form of two perpendicular ridges (baulks) in the form of a cross centred on the mound. Oriented to the cardinal directions, each baulk is approximately 1 metre wide and 10-11 metres long and rises from ground level to a height of 0.5 metre in the centre. The centre portion of the mound was disturbed just prior to the archaeological work. The site retains a spiritual significance and ritual place in the life of the Mi'kmaq community.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2001
Beaubears Island Shipbuilding National Historic Site of Canada
Beaubears Island, New Brunswick

Archaeological site associated with nineteenth-century shipbuilding in New Brunswick.

Boishébert National Historic Site of Canada and Beaubears Island Shipbuilding National Historic Site of Canada & J. Leonard O'Brien Memorial are administered by Parks Canada in collaboration with the Friends of Beaubears Island. The island, located on the Miramichi River 45 minutes north of Kouchibouguac National Park of Canada and 45 minutes south of the City of Bathurst, retains an old growth Acadian Forest with 200-year-old White Pines.

Boishébert Island and nearby Wilson's Point together form Boishébert National Historic Site of Canada. Under the leadership of Charles Deschamps de Boishébert, many Acadians found refuge during the Deportation at Wilson's Point from 1756 to 1760. Boishébert Island was also an integral and functional part of the early settlement, which gives testimony to the Acadian experience. Prior to Acadian settlement in the region, the Mi'kmaq people camped on the island and were one with the spirit of the land.

Beaubears Island Shipbuilding National Historic Site of Canada, J. Leonard O'Brien Memorial, is the only known, undisturbed archaeological site associated with the national significance of the 19th century wooden shipbuilding industry in New Brunswick.

Beaubears Island Shipbuilding National Historic Site of Canada incorporates some 24 hectares (60 acres) on the southeastern (downstream) shore of Beaubears Island at the confluence of the Southwest and Northwest Miramichi River, and the adjacent south channel of the Miramichi River. The site includes the remains of an early 19th-century shipyard.

Beaubears Island Shipbuilding was designated a national historic site as an example of a shipbuilding site in the Province of New Brunswick that contained in situ archaeological resources.

The heritage value of Beaubears Island Shipbuilding lies in the setting and landscape which contains archaeological resources defining the former shipyard facilities. These are typical of a New Brunswick shipyard of the early and mid 19th century in an area representing the major concentration of such sites along the Miramichi, the second largest shipbuilding centre in New Brunswick.

©Canadian Inventory of Historic Buildings/ Inventaire des bâtiments historiques du Canada, ca.1975
Belmont House / R. Wilmot Home National Historic Site of Canada
Lincoln, New Brunswick

Belmont House / R. Wilmot Home National Historic Site of Canada is a large neoclassical country house built in the early 19th century. It is located on the southwest bank of the Saint John River, about 16 kilometres from the city of Fredericton.

Belmont House / R. Wilmot Home is a good example of the neoclassical style as it was interpreted in Canada between 1820 and 1830. Its façade, whose form is created by the roof's gable end, is designed to emulate a temple front. Repeated on the rear elevation, the temple front arrangement, symmetry and classical ordering of the façades reflect the strength of neoclassicism in Canadian domestic architecture during this period.

Robert Duncan Wilmot (1809-1891), a Father of Confederation and prominent local, provincial and federal politician and statesman, lived at Belmont House intermittently between his father's purchase of the property in 1839 and his own death in 1891.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Ian Doull, 1999
Boishébert National Historic Site of Canada
Beaubears Island, New Brunswick

Acadian refugee settlement, 1756-59.

Boishébert National Historic Site of Canada is a wooded area with archaeological evidence of an 18th century Acadian refugee camp situated on Wilsons Point and Beaubears Island at the confluence of the Southwest and Northwest Miramichi River in New Brunswick.

The heritage value of Boishébert lies in the landscapes which includes below-ground cultural resources of the settlement of refugee Acadians, historic viewplanes and a relatively undisturbed natural setting.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Carleton Martello Tower National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

Fortification built to defend Saint John during War of 1812.

Carleton Martello Tower dates from the War of 1812 and played a pivotal role in conflicts up until the Second World War. The site features a restored powder magazine, a restored barracks room, and exhibits in the tower and in the Visitor Centre. Visitors will also marvel at the spectacular view of the city of Saint John and its harbour.

Carleton Martello Tower National Historic Site of Canada is a round, stone defence tower erected on a steep, rocky open ground. It is located on Carleton Heights across the harbour from downtown Saint John, New Brunswick.

The heritage value of Carleton Martello Tower lies in its construction origins. It was built by the British government between1812 and 1815 to protect Saint John from an American land attack from the West, during the War of 1812. The tower was briefly used for military purposes during World War I.

The heritage value of Carleton Martello Tower also lies in its architectural significance. The original structure is representative of the type of coastal defence used by the British inter alia in the British Isles during the Napoleonic period, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The tower is constituted of round walls, thick at the base, gradually tapering and slopping inward toward the ceiling. A two-storey addition was built on top of the tower in 1941 and it accommodated Saint John harbour defence facilities until 1948.

The heritage value of Carleton Martello Tower lies in its strategic location. Located 68.5 metres above sea level, on Carleton Heights, the tower was erected on the height of land in West Saint John. This location offered viewplanes of the surrounding area surrounding area and seaward.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1980.
Chandler House / Rocklyn National Historic Site of Canada
Dorchester, New Brunswick

Chandler House / Rocklyn National Historic Site of Canada is located in the town of Dorchester, New Brunswick. Built in 1831 in the Classical Revival style, this well-proportioned, two-storey, five bay house has a worked stone exterior and a low, hipped roof flanked by high stone chimneys. The front door is approached through an open porch with a pediment and columns.

The heritage value resides in theClassical Revival style of the house. Fine touches in the design of the building include the considered proportions, the manner in which the pediment on the porch repeats the angle of the hipped slate roof, and in the rusticated walls on the ground floor, which contrast with the smooth ashlar facing above. Triglyphs and fluted columns enrich the handsome wooden portico, set on a stone base. This classically inspired design, with its fine detailing and use of durable materials reflect the social and economic position of Edward Barron Chandler, a leading position in mid-nineteenth century Atlantic Canada.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2003
Charlotte County Court House National Historic Site of Canada
Saint Andrews, New Brunswick

Charlotte County Court House National Historic Site of Canada is a simple, one-and-a-half-storey, wood-frame building with a monumental pedimented portico. Built from 1839-1840, it is located on an elevated site next to the county gaol, in the town of Saint Andrews.

The Charlotte County Court House is typical of mid-19th-century county court houses in its siting, composition, form, materials and classical features. Like other county court houses of the period erected in the Maritime Provinces, its simple, wooden, vernacular form was distinguished from other buildings in the community by the addition of certain monumental features appropriate to its function and status in the community. These included an elevated site, a prominent pedimented portico, and the incorporation of classical masonry detailing translated into wood. The Charlotte County Court House was situated adjacent to the county gaol for functional reasons. The elegance and fine craftsmanship of the courthouse reflect the community's prosperity and pride in its public buildings, particularly those associated with the justice system. A royal coat of arms representing the British origins of the Loyalists who settled in the area was carved into the tympanum of the pediment by Charles Kennedy in 1858.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1980
Christ Church Anglican National Historic Site of Canada
Maugerville, New Brunswick

Christ Church Anglican National Historic Site of Canada is a mid-19th-century wooden church built in the Gothic Revival style. It is located in the small rural community of Maugerville, New Brunswick.

The heritage value of this site resides in the design, form and materials of the church, which illustrate the Ecclesiological phase of the Gothic Revival style of church architecture. This church was built in 1856 to serve as an example of an ecclesiologically correct Gothic Revival church realized in wood. Designed by diocesan architect Frank Wills under the supervision of Bishop John Medley, a strong proponent of the Ecclesiological movement, the church exemplifies the return to medieval Gothic forms in church architecture. Wills' design successfully interprets the volumes and angularity of the Gothic Revival style in wood, a building material appropriate to the Canadian context. The church reflects ecclesiological principles in its medieval-inspired layout, the clear expression of interior components in exterior volumes, the respect for the inherent qualities of its building material, and the limited use of Gothic Revival style details. The simple, bold massing of the church and its limited sculptural detailing also reflect the adaptation of the Gothic Revival style to Canada's frost-prone climate and limited pool of skilled labour.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Christ Church Cathedral National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

Christ Church Cathedral National Historic Site of Canada is a gracious mid-nineteenth-century cathedral whose elegant spire rises above the historic centre of Fredericton, New Brunswick. Dramatically sited on a generous green near the Saint John River, the cathedral recalls its English antecedents and has become an icon of Canadian ecclesiastical architecture.

The heritage value of this site resides in its physical illustration of the Gothic Revival style of architecture. Christ Church Cathedral is one of the best examples of ecclesiological Gothic Revival architecture in Canada and it established an architectural pattern followed in the design of many large and small churches in 19th-century Canada. In its architecture, logic and decoration, Christ Church Cathedral conforms to the aims of the Ecclesiological Society, an Anglican reform movement that actively sought a revival of medieval church models, both in ritual and in architecture. Modelled after a 14th-century church in Norfolk, England, the plans were drawn by the English architect, Frank Wills, at the request of John Medley, the first Bishop of New Brunswick and member of the Society. During the final stage of construction, the prominent English architect, William Butterfield, modified the east end of the cathedral by constructing a single tower in place of two. He also designed much of the cathedral's original furniture and plate. The cathedral's stone walls, crossing tower and picturesque massing echo the building's interior, and were typical of the Gothic Revival style. Following a fire in 1911, J. deLancey Robinson of New York completed a restoration in 1911-1913 that included the lengthening of the spire and the conversion of the former vestry into the present chapel.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1987
Connell House National Historic Site of Canada
Woodstock, New Brunswick

Connell House National Historic Site of Canada is an imposing two-and-a-half-storey wooden mansion distinguished by a double-height columned verandah running along the front and one side of the main block. This temple-fronted façade in the Greek Revival Style makes the house one of the most outstanding early buildings in the historic town of Woodstock, New Brunswick. The house is now a museum and archives operated by the Carleton County Historical Society.

Lumber merchant and politician, Charles Connell had this house constructed circa 1840. Houses inspired by classical temples, such as Connell House, are rare in Canada, although they were more common in the United States where Connell, who was of Loyalist descent, may have found his inspiration. The temple format of the original block has been obscured somewhat by several additions constructed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The house remained a Connell family home until 1975 when it was purchased by the Carleton County Historical Association for use as a museum and archives.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989
Denys Fort / Habitation National Historic Site of Canada
Shippagan, New Brunswick

In the first half of the seventeenth century the islands of Shippegan and Miscou were the common resort of French fishermen, fur traders and missionaries. Often five or six fishing ships anchored in Miscou Bay at one time to dry the cod which their crews caught nearby; when cured this fish was taken to Europe for sale. Several trading companies, including one led by Nicolas Denys, bartered furs here with the Micmac Indians. For many years the Jesuits operated a mission on these islands to serve the fishermen, traders and Indians.



©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Fort Beauséjour — Fort Cumberland National Historic Site of Canada
Aulac, New Brunswick

Remnants of 1750-51 French fort; captured by British and New England troops in 1755.

Situated at the head of the Bay of Fundy on the border between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Fort Beauséjour — Fort Cumberland stands at a crossroads of natural and cultural history. The site is an excellent venue to view a heritage landscape of great importance to Canadian history.

Fort Beauséjour — Fort Cumberland National Historic Site was founded in 1926 and recalls an era when European imperial forces struggled for control of colonial lands in eastern North America. Sweeping vistas of the surrounding marshlands can be seen from the site and the winds that sweep the landscape whisper echoes of the area's colourful historic past.

Fort Beauséjour — Fort Cumberland National Historic Site of Canada is a star-shaped late 18th- and early 19th-century military fortification situated on the narrow neck of land between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick at the southwestern end of the Cumberland Ridge near Aulac, New Brunswick.

The heritage value of Fort Beauséjour — Fort Cumberland National Historic Site of Canada lies in its historical role as illustrated by the extensive cultural landscape encompassing both the fortress and its defensive works, as well as five outlying properties associated with it (Butte à Roger, Ile de la Vallière, Chipoudy Point, the redoubt at Pont à Buot, Inverma Farm). Construction of Fort Beauséjour was begun in 1751 by the French and completed by the British after they captured it in 1755 and renamed it Fort Cumberland. The fort closed in 1835. Parks Canada now administers Fort Beauséjour as a national historic site of Canada open to the public.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada Anne Bardou, 2006.
Fort Charnisay National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

Fort Charnisay National Historic Site of Canada, of which there are no visible remains, is located in Saint John, New Brunswick. Between 1645 and the early 19th century, the site hosted a succession of forts due to its strategic position overlooking the St. John River on the western edge of the city's harbour. The site is marked by a Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque and cairn, situated approximately 400 metres to the south of the designated place, on Market Place Street. The footprint of the fort is located in the vicinity of what is today the Harbour Bridge toll plaza, a site that served as an industrial area related to the Saint John Harbour and railway during the early 20th century.

A rivalry between Charles Menou d'Aulnay de Charnisay and Charles de la Tour resulted in the construction of Fort Charnisay. Charles de la Tour, who had constructed Fort Sainte Marie (also known as Fort La Tour) on the east side of the Saint John Harbour in 1631, contested Charnisay's 1632 appointment as Lieutenant-Colonel to the King in Acadia. Charnisay attacked and destroyed Fort Sainte Marie in 1645 and subsequently built Fort Charnisay, a fortified trading post, on the west side of the harbour.

Joseph Robinau de Villebon constructed the first military installation on the site, Fort St. Jean, to protect Acadian settlers from the British. His successor, Jacques-François de Monbeton de Brouillan, dismantled the fort and moved to Port Royal in 1700 because he considered its defensive position and drinking water sources inadequate. The fort was rebuilt as Fort Menagoueche in 1749 when Lieutenant Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot was ordered to secure the mouth of the Saint John River and defend it against the British. Fort Menagoueche was destroyed when Lieutenant de Boishébert burned it while retreating from British Colonel Robert Monckton at the beginning of the Seven Years War (1756-1763), leaving Louisbourg as the sole French fortification in Acadia.

Monckton rebuilt the fort in 1758, naming it Fort Frederick. American privateers destroyed this incarnation of the fort in 1775. The fort was repaired a final time in response to the outbreak of the War of 1812. The successive forts thus demonstrate the power struggles that took place in this region during the 17th and 18th centuries.

For much of the first half of the 20th century, the site was part of an industrial area serving the harbour and the railway, until it was cleared in the mid-1960s for the construction of the Harbour Bridge toll plaza, which opened in 1968.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2003
Fort Howe National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

Fort Howe National Historic Site of Canada is located within parklands in present day Saint John, New Brunswick. Marked by an Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque in the park's west end, the fort, of which there are no extant remains, had been strategically located in this area, at the top of an exposed limestone knoll overlooking the Saint John River. The site has remained isolated from much of the urban development that encircles the park.

The British constructed Fort Howe in 1777 as a response to several requests from the residents around the mouth of the Saint John River that their small settlement be protected from further attacks by American privateers. With its location on a towering rock offering unmatched views of the harbour and up the river, Fort Howe and its garrison provided protection to the surrounding settlements through the end of the War of 1812. The original fort consisted of a blockhouse and barracks within a palisade on the western end of the hill, and a blockhouse at the eastern end, and was manned by a detachment of the Royal Fencible Americans under Major Gilfred Studholme. After the founding of Parrtown, later renamed Saint John, in 1783, the fort served as the military headquarters, as well as the first civil jail for the new town. Following a fire in 1819 that destroyed the original barracks, the fort fell into disrepair and by 1870 the remaining original fortifications had been removed.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Fort Gaspareaux National Historic Site of Canada
Port Elgin, New Brunswick

Military ruins and cemetery of 1751 French fort.

Fort Gaspareaux National Historic Site of Canada is an archaeological site located just outside Port Elgin, New Brunswick, 4.8 km from the village of Baie Verte. It is on a small point of land jutting into Baie Verte on the Northumberland Strait separating the mainland from Prince Edward Island. The site consists of 1.23 hectares of flat coastal land on the south side of the estuary of the Gaspareaux River and is protected by a substantial sea wall. Its landscape contains archaeological traces of the French Fort Gaspareaux together with 9 graves of Provincial soldiers killed in 1756 while garrisoning the fort.

Fort Gaspareaux was designated a national historic site 1920 because of its role in the struggle between France and Britain for North America in the 1750s.

The heritage value of Fort Gaspareaux National Historic Site of Canada resides in its associated history as illustrated by the site, setting and associated remains. The strategic location and footprint of the fort, its materials, construction technology and disposition all embody value.

Fort Gaspareaux was a border outpost built by French troops in 1751 by order of the Marquis de Jonquière, Governor-General of New France to prevent the British from penetrating the Chignecto Isthmus. It also served as a provisioning base for the forts of Acadia during the French règime. The fort was manned by a skeleton staff of 19 soldiers led by M. De Villeray when, on 17 June 1755, it was attacked by British soldiers under Colonel John Winslow and forced to surrender. The British burned the fortress in September 1756. Its location has been known since that time even though the site of the fortress served as farmland for a long period. This was one of the first sites to be commemorated by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada and became the locus of archaeological investigation in 1996.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Fort Jemseg National Historic Site of Canada
Jemseg, New Brunswick

Built in 1659 by Thomas Temple during the English possession of Acadia, as a trading post. Ceded to France in 1667. In 1674, captured by a Dutch expedition under Capt. Jurriaen Aernouts, who named the country New Holland, claiming possession for the Prince of Orange.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Fort La Tour National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

Fort La Tour National Historic Site of Canada is an archaeological site containing the remains of a 17th-century fortified fur-trading post in Saint John, New Brunswick. It sits on a grassy knoll on Portland Point, at the mouth of the Saint John River. Strategically located, the fort enjoyed uninterrupted viewscapes up the river and across the Bay of Fundy. Since the 19th century, the surrounding area has become industrialized and is now characterized by a series of wharves and structures lining the shore.

In 1631, Charles de Saint-Étienne de La Tour, Governor of Acadia and fur-trading entrepreneur, established a fortified fur trading post named Fort Sainte-Marie, at the mouth of the Saint John River. Located on ground traditionally used by First Nations peoples, the fort became one of the earliest centres of the French fur trade in the region. Aboriginal traders carried furs down the Saint John River to trade at the fort for goods such as beads, iron spear points and arrow heads. It also provided a strategically located, fortified stronghold against La Tour's rival, Charles de Menou d'Aulnay, whose base was at Port-Royal on the opposite side of the Bay of Fundy. In 1645, d'Aulnay attacked the fort during Sieur de La Tour's absence. Sieur de La Tour's wife, Françoise-Marie Jacquelin, led a defence of the garrison for four days, until finally surrendering to d'Aulnay. After taking possession of the fort, d'Aulnay reneged on the conditions of surrender and executed the members of the garrison. Jacquelin's bravery, and her death while in d'Aulnay's custody, have made her a Canadian heroine. The fort itself was destroyed at an unknown date in the 17th or early-18th century.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Fort Nashwaak (Naxoat) National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

Fort Nashwaak (Naxoat) National Historic Site of Canada is marked by a Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque located in Carleton Park, near the intersection of Union Street and Gibson Street in Fredericton, New Brunswick. Although there are no extant remains or known archaeological evidence of this fort, it was once a typical French fort of the 17th century, with a palisade made of timber piles and diamond shaped bastions. The fort had been constructed at the mouth of the Nashwaak River where it flows into the Saint John River, about 700 metres south of where the plaque is found today.

Constructed by the Governor of New France, Joseph Robineau de Villebon, during the winter of 1691-1692, Fort Nashwaak (Naxoat) served to stabilize the New England-Acadia boundary, and prevented annexation of the French colony by the English. From the fort, the French, with the help of the Abenakis, organized and launched various raids against New England settlements. During a summer 1696 raid, a French force under de Villebon and his brother attacked and captured Fort William Henry. Though the English retaliated by attacking Fort Nashwaak (Naxoat) by way of the Saint John River, the seige failed and was lifted after two days. In 1698, de Villebon was ordered by the King to build a new fort at the mouth of the Saint John River and Fort Nashwaak (Naxoat) was demolished. The site and any archaeological evidence has subsequently been washed away due to erosion.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2005
Fort Nerepis National Historic Site of Canada
Grand Bay-Westfield, New Brunswick

Fort Nerepis National Historic Site of Canada is strategically located at Woodmans Point on the confluence of the Saint John and Nerepis Rivers in New Brunswick. Originally a fortified Aboriginal village, a small French fort was built at the original site circa 1749 by Charles Deschamps de Boishébert. The remains of Fort Nerepis and its precise location have never been found; however, the area on Woodmans Point is marked by a cairn and plaque erected by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada.

Nerepis was first known to have been the site of a fortified Aboriginal village, strategically positioned to control entry into interior New Brunswick along both the Saint John and Nerepis rivers. One of the earliest documented references to Nerepis was in 1697, which noted that the Sr. de Neuvillette would take scouts from Nerepis when he journeyed along the river. Sometime after 1749, Lieutenant Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot moved to this location to build a small fort, and it is from him that the other names of the fort were derived. This fort remained a French foothold until around 1755 when British forces under Colonel Robert Monckton began the expulsion of Acadian French settlers throughout the region.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Fredericton City Hall National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

Fredericton City Hall is a three-storey, red-brick building built in 1875-1876 in the Second Empire style. It is prominently located on a corner lot in downtown Fredericton. The building is separated from the street by a large, paved, public square, known as Phoenix Square, with a fountain and paved walkways.

Built in 1875-1876, Fredericton City Hall follows the Second Empire style, one frequently used for grand public buildings during the second half of the 19th century. Its commanding presence and function as a civic building are emphasized by the public square which fronts it.

Like many 19th-century municipal buildings, Fredericton City Hall was built to serve multiple civic functions. For more than 60 years, the ground floor contained municipal offices and council chambers, the upper storey contained an auditorium known as the Opera House, and the basement contained a market. The inclusion of a market in a town hall building was less common in the 1870s than earlier, as administrative functions gained in importance and complexity. In 1940, the council chambers moved to the upper storey auditorium and in 1951 the market vacated the building. The building continues to be used as municipal offices and council chambers.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989
Fredericton Military Compound National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

Fredericton Military Compound National Historic Site of Canada is a military complex of four early 19th century buildings located in the Historic Garrison District of downtown Fredericton, New Brunswick. This military compound sits next to the majestic St John's River. The complex includes the Soldiers' Barracks, the Guard House, the Officers' Quarters, and the Militia Arms Store. To the east of the Officers Barracks is an open, green space known as Officers Square that is approximately 70 by 90 metres. Additional buildings on the site were built in the late 19th and 20th centuries.

The Fredericton Military Compound was established in 1784 as a British military garrison and at one point included over fifty buildings. Many of these buildings were destroyed in a fire in 1825 and extant military buildings were constructed afterwards. The British garrison occupied the Fredericton Military Compound until 1869 when the new Dominion of Canada assumed responsibility for defence. Only four buildings remain from the original British garrison: the Soldier's Barracks (1826), the Guard House (1828), the Officer's Barracks (1839, 1851) and the Militia Arms Store (1832). These buildings are representative of early 19th century British military architecture.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2008
Free Meeting House National Historic Site of Canada
Moncton, New Brunswick

The Free Meeting House National Historic Site of Canada is a handsome, wood frame building whose exterior design reflects British classical influences, in its symmetrical elevation and classical details. The interior reflects historic meeting house designs, being an open hall with box pews. Located in downtown Moncton, the meeting house is now a historic site accessible to the public.

The heritage value of this site resides in its historical associations with religious toleration in the Maritime Provinces as illustrated by the location and design of the building. Originally constructed in the mode of a simple meeting house by members of the community, it was dedicated as a house of worship in 1821. As the only local place of worship, it was intended for use by all denominations and accommodated numerous congregations including Protestant, Roman Catholic and Jewish, until 1963. Over the years, the building was altered to respond to changing usage and taste but was restored in 1990 as a Moncton centennial project to approximate its 1821 condition. The Free Meeting House has resumed its historical role as a venue for special services held by various religious groups in the community.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Fundy National Park of Canada
Headquarters: Alma, New Brunswick

Atlantic's sanctuary with world's highest tides.

Fundy National Park of Canada encompasses some of the last remaining wilderness in southern New Brunswick. Here, the conifer dominated Caledonia Highlands roll down to meet the fog-generating Bay of Fundy. The tidal fluctuation of the Bay of Fundy is the highest in the world. Watch fishing boats come and go to the rhythm of the bay. Inland, explore lush forests and deep stream valleys.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Katherine Spencer-Ross, 1994
Greenock Church National Historic Site of Canada
St. Andrews, New Brunswick

Greenock Church National Historic Site of Canada is a handsome, wooden Palladian-style church, distinguished by a classically inspired entry porch and staged spire. Its double height interior with its high pulpit, box pews and galleries, shows the influence of earlier meeting houses. The church is set in the heart of a historic townsite, recognized as the St. Andrews Historic District National Historic Site of Canada.

This elegant church marks the growth of both Presbyterianism and the Kirk of Scotland in New Brunswick. Constructed in 1821-1824 by local builder Donald D. Morrison, the structure successfully combines the American meeting house form with the British Palladian style. The building's fine proportions and classical details complement its simple, symmetrical plan. The original box pews and two-tiered pulpit, birdseye maple columns and decorative mouldings create a rich interior. The carved green oak on the steeple symbolizes Greenock, the Scottish home of the church's benefactor, Christopher Scott.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Hammond House National Historic Site of Canada, 2008
Sackville, New Brunswick

Hammond House National Historic Site of Canada is a large, Queen Anne Revival-style house located in a landscaped setting on the campus of Mount Allison University.

Hammond House was designated a national historic site in 1990 because it was a particularly good example of the Queen Anne Revival Style as expressed in domestic architecture.

The heritage value of this site resides in its material expression of the fanciful forms, asymmetrical massing and polychromatic surfaces characteristic of the Queen Anne Revival, a style popular for residences during the 1870-1914 period.

The house was designed by Burke and Horwood, architects, and built in 1896 for artist John Hammond. The Hammond family first resided there in March 1897. Later it was taken over by Mount Allison University.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada 1987
Hartland Covered Bridge National Historic Site of Canada
Hartland, New Brunswick

A striking feature in the New Brunswick landscape is the Hartland Covered Bridge, the largest of its kind in the world. Its massive concrete piers support a long, enclosed wooden bridge, held up by Howe trusses. The bridge offers protected crossing of the Saint John River at the Village of Hartland.

Hartland Covered Bridge was designated a national historic site of Canada because this structure is the longest covered bridge extant in the world.

The heritage value of this site resides in its design and physical fabric. The structure, 390.75 metres long, is believed to be by far the longest covered bridge extant in the world. Covered bridges date from the first decade of the 19th century when North American buildings began using wooden trusses for long spans and covered them to prevent the truss joins from rotting. After 1840 the Howe truss, which introduced iron tension rods into the truss work, was widely adopted and New Brunswick erected numerous bridges using this technique, among them this one, built in 1921 with a walkway added in 1943.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Imperial / Bi-Capitol Theatre National Historic Site of Canada, HRS 0543, 1993
Saint John, New Brunswick

Imperial / Bi-Capitol Theatre National Historic Site is an early 20th century theatre building facing onto King's Square, Saint John.

The heritage value of the Imperial / Bi-Capitol Theatre lies in its physical characteristics that speak to its role as a theatre designed for live performance. Built in 1912-1923 by the Keith-Albee vaudeville chain of New York and its subsidiary the Saint John Amusements Company (A.E. Westover, architect), the Imperial Theatre opened as a combination live and movie theatre in 1913. It was renamed the Capitol Theatre and operated primarily as a cinema with occasional live entertainment, 1929-1957. During the mid 1980s it was restored as a live theatre and re- named the Bi-Capitol Theatre.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park of Canada
Headquarters: Kouchibouguac National Park, New Brunswick

Intricate Acadian blend of coastal and inland habitats.

Kouchibouguac is a fascinating mosaic of bogs, salt marshes, tidal rivers, sparkling freshwater systems, sheltered lagoons, abandoned fields and tall forests which characterizes the Maritime Plain Natural Region.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1955
La Coupe Dry Dock National Historic Site of Canada
Aulac, New Brunswick

Site may represent 18th-century Acadian construction.

This quadrilateral arrangement of dykes is believed to have been built by the Acadians to regulate the flow of the river La Coupe, as to permit the entrance and exit of vessels of moderate size.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Loyalist House National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

A handsome reminder of the earliest days of settlement in Saint John, the Loyalist House National Historic Site of Canada embodies the finest qualities of early 19th-century classicism as it appeared in Atlantic Canada. Its wooden construction in an overall classical design was executed by specialized craftsmen using good quality domestic and imported materials. Its fine interiors are now open to the public.

Constructed before 1820 by the merchant David Merritt, this house was maintained with minimal changes by five generations of his family who lived there until 1959. Its harmonious proportions, symmetrical composition and interior layout, and detailing show the influence of the neoclassical design tradition brought from New England during this era, referred to as "Federal". One of the oldest residences in the city, Loyalist House is an important survivor of the Great Fire, which destroyed much of central Saint John in 1877. The same family inhabited the building for most of its existence and has survived remarkably unchanged throughout the years.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1991
Marine Hospital National Historic Site of Canada
Miramichi, New Brunswick

Marine Hospital National Historic Site of Canada is a one-storey, sandstone building with a domed cupola, built in 1830-1831. It is perched on high ground overlooking the Miramichi River. The former hospital is surrounded by wood-frame residences in the small community of Douglastown, now a suburb of the City of Miramichi, where it serves as a church hall and community meeting place.

Built by Matthew Lamont for the Commissioners of the Port of Miramichi in 1830-1831, the Marine Hospital at Douglastown is the oldest surviving marine hospital in Canada. Until 1921, it provided care for indigent, sick or disabled seamen, most of whom worked in the timber trade along the Miramichi River. Its form, composition, roofline and cupola reflect classical architectural traditions that were popular in early 19th-century British North America.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, J. Butterill, 1995
Marysville Cotton Mill National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

The Marysville Cotton Mill National Historic Site of Canada is the focal point of the Marysville Historic District National Historic Site of Canada. Rehabilitated to serve as government offices, the imposing, four-storey, red-brick cotton mill building features a flat-roofed central tower, and numerous multi-pane mullion windows. Located within the former settlement of Marysville, a model community built to house the mill workers, and the building is situated within the block bounded by McGloin, Fisher, Duke, Marshall and Bridge Streets.

Industrialist Alexander "Boss" Gibson built this cotton mill between 1883 and 1885. Designed by the Boston architectural firm of Lockwood, Greene and Company Mill Architects and Engineers, the construction of the mill was influenced by New England models and is a classic example of the brick "insurance mill" of the late 19th-century.

This four-storey building was constructed of locally made brick and features brick pier construction, a central water tower and fire-retardant materials on the interior. By 1900 Marysville Cotton Mill was among the largest mills in Canada. The mill was designed on the "slow-burning" principle and was state-of-the-art for its time, incorporating not only electric lighting, but all those features characteristic of plants whose power was provided from a central plant and distributed by belts, pulleys and overhead shafting to machinery whose location within the complex was dictated by its place within the production framework. Despite its seemingly remote location, the mill was designed to supply a national market and did so throughout its working career. The mill continued manufacturing textiles until the late 1970s.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Marysville Historic District National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

Marysville is a former industrial (now residential) community, comprised of a 19th-century rehabilitated cotton mill, former shops and extensive surviving housing. It is located on the banks of the Nashwaak River on the outskirts of the city of Fredericton. The buildings are arranged around the former mill, with the former commercial area nearby. Primarily brick row and semi-detached housing is concentrated along the east side of the river. The principal resources include: the rehabilitated late 19th-century brick cotton mill; brick tenement housing nearby (39 duplexes, 14 single houses and a fire-damaged former boarding house); 11 frame duplexes along the east riverbank; two former shopkeepers houses and a former shop on Mill and Canada streets; and 19 residential properties (formerly for managers) along Canada Street.

The Marysville Historic District was designated a national historic site as a rare example of a single-industry company town of the 19th century possessing both its plant and company housing; as a historic district containing a full range of community facilities, including industrial, commercial and residential buildings, erected between c1840 and 1890; and because it largely retains its 19th-century appearance and character. The area is also associated with, and illustrates two important historical themes — the staples trade and the industrial development of Canada under the National Policy. The former Marysville Cotton Mill also has an individual designation as a national historic site.

Marysville originated as a logging community, with a lumber mill on the west bank of Nashwaak River and a row of workers' housing along the opposite bank. The "White Row" duplexes on River Street reflect this c1840s era.

In 1862, Alexander "Boss" Gibson purchased the mill property, naming it Marysville and adding manufacturing facilities, housing and a commercial area. A wood-frame store and nine houses in the Nob Hill area reflect the Gibson lumber mill era. Their design and materials are typical of those used for mid-19th-century, working-class residences in New Brunswick. Seven duplexes represent original buildings from the mid-nineteenth century. Five duplexes were rebuilt in 1920 to replace buildings destroyed by a 1920 sawmill fire. The arrangement of duplexes in a row along the riverbank reflects their mid-19th-century configuration.

Marysville reflects the Macdonald administration's use of the National Policy to create an industrial economy in Canada. In 1883, encouraged by the introduction of protective tariffs under the National Policy, Gibson hired Boston architects Lockwood, Greene & Company to design a state-of-the-art cotton mill at Marysville. Lockwood, Greene & Company also designed a planned community around the mill, with brick tenement housing for workers, additional managers' housing, and an enlarged commercial area. Surviving brick workers', managers' and merchants' housing, together with the mill, reflect the cotton mill era at Marysville.

The planned community at Marysville is among the earliest and most complete Canadian examples of an integrated industrial/ residential community. It reflects the paternal model of 19th-century labour relations, in which industrialists sought to control the working and living conditions of workers, with a view to optimizing production. The high quality, brick construction of both tenements and mill reflect Gibson's optimism for the community. The Mill Street commercial area reflects the paternal model of industrialism practised by Gibson, in which company shops were provided for mill employees within the integrated setting of the industrial/residential community. Surviving buildings represent the commercial needs of a 19th-century community, and include residences provided for merchants.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1987
McAdam Railway Station (Canadian Pacific) National Historic Site of Canada
McAdam, New Brunswick

The McAdam Railway Station is a large, two-and-a-half-storey, stone, Chateau-style railway station and hotel building. Built in 1900-01 and enlarged in 1910-11, it dominates its immediate surroundings in the small town of McAdam, New Brunswick.

The McAdam Railway Station was designated a national historic site in 1976 because of its association with the development of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) and because it is a rare surviving example of both a station in the Chateau Style and one which combined a station with a hotel.

Built at the turn of the century, the McAdam station illustrates the beginning of a period of tremendous growth and expansion for the CPR. It is one of the largest, surviving examples of the Chateau style from the CPR inventory. Built to replace an earlier station, it reflects McAdam's prosperity and importance as a railway junction and the expectation that this would continue. The McAdam station is a rare surviving example of a combined railway station and hotel. While its layout is typical of stations of its size in terms of functional arrangements and features, it is distinguished by the incorporation of hotel facilities. No longer functioning as an active station, the building now is maintained by the McAdam Historical Restoration Commission Inc.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2008
Meductic Indian Village / Fort Meductic National Historic Site of Canada
Meductic, New Brunswick

Meductic Indian Village / Fort Meductic National Historic Site of Canada is located near the confluence of the Eel River and Saint John River, in New Brunswick. The site, dating from before the 17th century, was originally situated on a plateau west of the Saint John River; but in 1968 the Mactaquac Hydroelectric Dam was built, flooding much of the Saint John River valley, including the entire site of Meductic. A Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plaque and cairn marking the site is located nearby on Fort Meductic Road.

The fortified village of Meductic was established by the Maliseet First Nation on a plateau on the bank of the Saint John River, west of the Eel River. Each spring, the lowlands around the plateau filled with water creating arable land for crops. Until the 17th century, the nomadic Maliseet would regularly visit the site in the spring to plant corn, returning later in the year to harvest their crops. In their battle for this valuable territory, the French settlers in the region allied themselves with the Iroquois, Maliseet and Penobscot, while the English allied themselves with the Mohawk. To defend themselves against the Mohawk and to protect their claim to this geographically significant settlement, the Maliseet established a fort on the plateau.

By the end of the 17th century, Meductic had a Jesuit mission and was incorporated into a French seigneury. The mission changed the landscape of Meductic, and by 1760 the Maliseet, who left to settle in other communities, abandoned the village. The land was then sporadically used as an Aboriginal camp until 1841. Shortly thereafter, the site became part of a farm that was owned by the Hay family throughout the late 19th century. In 1968 the Mactaquac dam was built, flooding much of the Saint John River valley, including the entire site of Meductic.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, L. Maitland, 1995
Minister's Island National Historic Site of Canada
St. Andrews, New Brunswick

Minister's Island National Historic Site of Canada is a well-preserved, picturesque summer estate and gentleman's farm, developed in the late 19th and early 20th century. It comprises all of a 280-hectare island in Passamaquoddy Bay, on the eastern coast of New Brunswick. At low tide the island is connected to the mainland by a land bridge. The estate consists of a complex of buildings designed in an elegant, but relaxed, version of the Shingle style, surrounded by forests and fields. The landscape comprises four interconnected zones: the main house with its ancillary buildings, lawns and gardens; the agricultural lands and buildings to the north; the recreational lands comprising the beaches, tennis court, croquet lawn, paths and carriage roads; and the forest covering a third of the island. The main house is supported by ancillary buildings including a garage, a carriage house, a windmill, a gas plant, and a bathhouse. Agricultural buildings include a barn, a dairy, a bunkhouse, a gardener's cottage with the remnants of a vinery attached, and a late 18th-century, stone farmhouse.

The estate speaks eloquently about the life and times of the builder of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Sir William Cornelius Van Horne. In developing the property, Van Horne was actively assisted by his wife, Lucy Adeline Hurd Van Horne, and their daughter Adeline, who continued to develop the estate after Van Horne's death. The estate is directly associated with Van Horne's business life and reflects his wide-ranging interests.

Architect Edward Maxwell of Montréal, one of Canada's best-known residential and commercial architects, designed the estate's residential and farm complexes. The structures represent fine examples of Shingle style buildings and turn-of-the-century aesthetic ideas about the need for harmonious relationships between buildings and landscapes.

In its comfortable blending of ocean horizons, beaches, farm, fields, forests and buildings faced in stone and wood, the estate is a personal and regional response to country estate traditions drawn from British and American models. The estate influenced the development of other resort communities, most notably, St. Andrew's, New Brunswick.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1939
Minister's Island Pre-contact Sites National Historic Site of Canada
St. Andrews, New Brunswick

Minister's Island Pre-contact Sites National Historic Site of Canada is composed of below-ground archaeological sites located on Passamaquoddy Bay in the southwest corner of New Brunswick. The remains associated with these sites date from 1000 to 500 BCE. The so-called island is connected to the mainland by a natural bar, covered at high tide and exposed at low tide. Comprising some 280 hectares (700 acres), the island was developed by railway baron William Van Horne as a summer estate called Covenhoven, now open to the public as Minister's Island National Historic Site of Canada. This group of archaeological sites is marked by a commemorative plaque.

Located on the former grounds of William Van Horne's summer estate on Minister's Island, now Minister's Island National Historic Site of Canada, near the town of St. Andrews, this group of archaeological sites contains the remains of four houses dating back at least 1200 years as well as the mounds of shells left from generations of shellfish harvesting, all indicating that this was probably a coastal winter settlement.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Ministry of Transport, 1990
Miscou Island Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada
Miscou Island, New Brunswick

Miscou Island Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada is a mid-19th century wooden lighthouse, located at the north-eastern tip of Miscou Island at Birch Point Cape, New Brunswick. It is strategically placed on a flat and exposed coastline surrounded by low scrubland, at the southern entrance of Chaleur Bay in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The tower's tapered octagonal massing is shingle-clad, and capped by a polygonal lantern behind a cast-iron rail. A mid 20th-century foghorn building stands on its side.

The heritage value of Miscou Island Lighthouse lies in its critical and longstanding role as a lighthouse as embodied by the tower's function, setting, and composition. In 1856, the lighthouse was constructed by the Province of New Brunswick to reduce the number of shipping accidents in the region. Subsequently, it became a major coastal aid, providing safe navigation for ships entering the Chaleur Bay and for coastal traffic between the Atlantic Provinces and Quebec.

The Miscou Island Lighthouse is one of the rarest surviving wooden, octagonal, tapered lighthouses. The construction technique was unusual as the eight panels were built independently of each other. The lighthouse's functional design was enhanced with the installation of a powerful dioptric light and a diaphone fog alarm. In 1903, its height was raised from 22.5 to 24.3 metres in order to extend the range of light. In 1946, the entire lighthouse was relocated 61 metres inland due to shoreline erosion. Today, the light is automated and still operating.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada


©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Monument-Lefebvre National Historic Site of Canada
Memramcook, New Brunswick

Multi-function building, symbol of Acadian cultural revival.

The Monument-Lefebvre National Historic Site of Canada is situated in the Memramcook Valley of southeastern New Brunswick. The Monument-Lefebvre building is the symbol of the renaissance of contempory Acadie. It stands as a tangible monument which allows all to appreciate the history, the culture and the accomplishments of the Acadian people. Housed in this heritage building is the new Exhibit "Reflections of a Journey - the Odyssey of the Acadian People". The Exhibit serves as a cultural interpretive centre where visitors can immerse themselves in all things Acadian.

Monument-Lefebvre National Historic Site of Canada is an imposing stone structure situated on an elevated site on the campus of Saint-Joseph's College in Memramcook, New Brunswick. The building is constructed of rusticated New Brunswick olive sandstone and its symmetrical, classically designed façade features Romanesque Revival details. The structure houses a theatre and classrooms, facilities that contributed to the goal of sustaining and nourishing Acadian culture and education. Official recognition refers to the building on its footprint.

The Monument-Lefebvre was built in memory of Father Camille Lefebvre, who died in 1895. Work commenced in 1896, and the building was officially opened in 1897. Father Lefebvre founded the College Saint-Joseph at Memramcook as the first French language institution to confer university degrees in the Atlantic region, and played a prominent role in the rebirth of Acadian culture in Canada in the late 19th century. Closed in the 1970s, the building was preserved as a memorial to Acadian culture and Father Lefebvre's work. Its heritage value lies in its association with Father Lefebvre as illustrated by its use and physical characteristics.

©Harold E. Wright, Heritage Resources / Ressources patrimoniales, Saint John, 2009
Number 2 Mechanics' Volunteer Company Engine House National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

Number 2 Mechanics' Volunteer Company Engine House National Historic Site of Canada is a handsome stone fire hall facing King's Square, the oldest public park in the heart of Saint John, New Brunswick. Sandwiched between the larger court house and a row of four-storey commercial buildings, the small, two-storey, pitched-roof building speaks to its time and function.

The frequency and severity of citywide fires so terrified Canadians in the early-19th century that communities began to construct permanent fire stations. Erected in 1840, this elegant neo-classical building is a pioneer example of a fire hall designed to house volunteer brigade using manually drawn and operated pumper fire engines. The work of local architect John Cunningham, this building recalls the earliest phase in the development of municipal fire fighting in Canada when volunteer fire brigades served as the best line of defence against devastating fires and played an important role in Victorian urban life. It operated as a fire hall until 1948 and is now open to the public as a museum of fire fighting.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1990
Old Government House National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

Old Government House National Historic Site of Canada is a large, stone, Palladian-style residence of New Brunswick's lieutenant governor. It is located on a 4.5 hectare (11-acre) site on Woodstock Rd., just west of the centre of Fredericton, on the banks of the Saint John River.

Old Government House National Historic Site was designed by English artist and designer J.W. Woolford and was built in 1826-1828 to house the Governor of the Colony of New Brunswick. It replaced an earlier governor's residence (1787), which had been destroyed by fire. An historic encounter between Governor Arthur Gordon and Premier Albert J. Smith occurred here on 7 April 1866, paving the way for Confederation. This building served as the official residence of the governors, then lieutenant governors of New Brunswick until 1893 when a new official residence was constructed. It then became a veterans' hospital, and subsequently headquarters of J Division of the RCMP from 1932 to 1988. Since then, it has been restored and has resumed its original function as the residence of the Lieutenant Governor.

The heritage value of Old Government House National Historic Site resides in its functional role as an official residence (both 1828-1893 and 1988-present), its experience as the site of an important event in Canadian history, and in its Palladian-style architecture. Value also lies in its site and setting.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, ca. 1982
Oxbow National Historic Site of Canada
Red Bank Indian Reserve (Metepenagiag Mi'kmaq Nation), New Brunswick

Oxbow National Historic Site of Canada is an archaeological site located within the reserve land of the Metepenagiag Mi'kmaq Nation, New Brunswick across the Little Southwest Miramichi River from the present Mi'kmaq community. The site is an oxbow bend of the river and follows the north bank of the river, encompassing the place where stratified archaeological resources are buried in the silts and gravels of the river bank to a depth of up to two metres. It is situated within the Metepenagiag Heritage Park, as the Augustine Mound National Historic Site of Canada.

Oxbow was designated a national historic site of Canada in 1982 because it is a unique cultural record of a flourishing Mi'kmaq community which has endured for at least 3000 years and it shows a direct relationship between the everyday life of the community and its spiritual centre at the Augustine Mound.

The heritage value of Oxbow National Historic Site of Canada lies in its role as witness and record of 3000 years of continuous Mi'kmaq use of this site as illustrated by its setting, site, dense composition, by the spatial, functional and cultural inter-relationships of its layered components, and by the rich and varied nature of the archaeological evidence they contain. Value also lies in the direct association of early levels of the site with the Augustine Mound, designated national historic site of Canada in 1975.

Oxbow National Historic Site of Canada contains evidence of 3,000 years of Mi'kmaq history (from 1000 BC to the present) on the north bank of the Little southwest Miramichi River at the head of tide. Annual flooding of the river bank has created a well-stratified site in which the cultural development through time is preserved in multiple layers of sediment. This deep stratigraphic development is virtually unique in Maritime Canada. Most of the archeological remains constitute a collection held in the archaeological services office of the New Brunswick Government in Fredericton.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, Cameron
Partridge Island Quarantine Station National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

Partridge Island Quarantine Station National Historic Site of Canada comprises Partridge Island at the entrance to Saint John harbour, approximately 1 kilometre from the shore of west Saint John, New Brunswick.

The heritage value of Partridge Island Quarantine Station National Historic Site of Canada lies in its historic role as a 19th-century quarantine station as illustrated by the site, setting and landscape of the island and the quarantine-related remains it contains. Partridge Island was one of two major quarantine stations in 19th-century Canada. Established in 1830 to protect Canadian citizens from contagious diseases carried by in-coming ships, the station provided treatment for immigrants and crewmembers who were ill, as well as purification facilities for the healthy passengers aboard the ships. This station was active during a particularly early and busy period of Canadian immigration. During 1847, 2000 Irish immigrants fleeing from the potato famine were quarantined here during a typhus epidemic. 601 of them are buried in a mass grave on the island. Passengers quarantined on this island eventually settled in New Brunswick, Upper Canada and the United States.

Partridge Island continued to be used as a quarantine station until 1941. It was occupied for the military defence of Saint John during both World Wars, and also used as a light station. All buildings on the island were demolished in 1955 and 1998-1999. Today the site contains remnants of buildings and structures associated with its important role as a 19th-century quarantine station, including those of the doctor's residence (built ca. 1872), the 2nd class immigrants, marine officers' and smallpox hospitals (1899-1901), a low water wharf, and a cemetery containing graves from the 1847 typhus epidemic.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1992
Prince William Streetscape National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

This streetscape comprises twelve public and commercial buildings in downtown Saint John, New Brunswick. These distinguished late 19th-century, masonry buildings are concentrated in a two-block stretch of Prince William Street in the vicinity of Princess and Duke streets.

The heritage value of the Prince William Streetscape resides in the concentration of architecturally notable public and commercial buildings within a two-block area. Most were erected after the Great Fire of 1877, and their use of late 19th-century architectural styles, fire-retardant materials and fine craftsmanship illustrates the determination of the city of Saint John to rebuild its fortunes in the wake of the disastrous fire.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1993
Rothesay Railway Station (European and North American) National Historic Site of Canada
Rothesay, New Brunswick

The Rothesay Railway Station (European and North American) is a two-and-a-half-storey, Neo-Gothic, railway station with stationmaster's quarters above. It was built in the mid-19th century and is centrally located in the community of Rothesay.

Rothesay Railway Station (European and North American) was designated a national historic site in 1976 because it commemorates the development of the Maritime Railways and it is a good surviving example of a number two standard station designed by the European and North American Railway (ENAR).

Rothesay Railway Station (European and North American) was one of the first stations built by the newly formed ENAR along its Saint John to Shediac line. Built to a standard design, the Rothesay station is one of a small number of surviving ENAR stations built before 1860 that represent the earliest surviving examples of railway architecture in the Maritime provinces.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Saint Croix Island International Historic Site
New Brunswick

Saint Croix Island is the site of Pierre Dugua's first attempt at settlement in North America, which led to the establishment of the permanent colonies of Acadie and New France.

Welcome to Saint Croix Island, site of Pierre Dugua's first attempt at settlement in North America, which led to the establishment of the permanent colonies of Acadie and New France. The site was declared a National Monument by the United States National Park Service on June 8, 1949 and an International Historic Site on September 25, 1984. In 1958, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada recommended that Saint Croix Island be recognized for its national historic significance to Canada. The Canadian interpretation site, administered by Parks Canada, is located at Bayside, New Brunswick, near St. Andrews. It overlooks Saint Croix Island, located in the middle of the Saint Croix River.

In 1603, Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons, was given the title of Lieutenant General of "La Cadie" (Acadie). The following year, he arrived in Acadie on the flagship Bonne-Renommée . The ship's company included Samuel de Champlain, a skilled mapmaker and chronicler. In search of a suitable site for settlement, the expedition arrived in the Passamaquoddy Bay in late June. De Mons named the island Saint Croix and it was there that he tried to establish year-round French settlement in North America, an event that symbolizes the founding of Acadie.

Even though the settlement was short-lived, in the summer of 1605 they moved to the shores of the present-day Annapolis Basin in Nova Scotia where Port Royal was established, their experience taught them much. The invaluable experience they gained from this first settlement gave them the knowledge they needed to found a more successful settlement at Port Royal and gave way to an enduring French presence in North America to this present day.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1987
Saint John City Market National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

The Saint John City Market National Historic Site of Canada is a large, brick building located across from the northwestern corner of King Square in the central business district of Saint John, New Brunswick. The building extends the length of a city block. Completed in 1876, its formal entry façade, a three-and-a-half storey Second Empire-Style office block, faces the square. Extending back from this block is the market hall with its double height open space organized around a wide central aisle and individual stalls that extend along both sides. The market space is distinguished by exposed timber framing and queen post trusses supported by cast iron columns.

The Saint John City Market illustrates the development of buildings designed specifically as markets in 19th century Canada. The solid, fire-resistant Saint John Market building was constructed between 1874-1876 to the designs of New Brunswick architects McKean and Fairweather. It survived the Great Fire of 1877 and was renovated over the years, allowing it to remain an important civic structure that continues to fulfill its original function.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1980
Saint John County Court House National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

Saint John County Court House is a three-storey, stone building built from 1826 to 1829 in the Neoclassical style. It is located in the city of Saint John, New Brunswick, in an urban area of 19th-century buildings. The Court House is set on high ground on a corner lot, with the gaol behind. Across the street are the Loyalist Burial Grounds and a treed, city square known as King Square.

Saint John County Court House was designated a national historic site in 1974 because it is representative of the judicial institution in New Brunswick; and, with its conscious arrangement of classical details, the building creates an impression of order and grandeur.

The Saint John County Court House was built in 1826-9 to provide courtrooms and office space for the Supreme Court and the Court of Quarter Sessions. It also contained a Council Chamber for sittings of City Council. Today, it contains the Office of the Sheriff/Coroner and is used for sessions of the Court of Queen's Bench and Provincial Court as needed.

In its materials, form, composition and detailing, the Court House is typical of early-19th-century, British, public buildings in Canada. Its Neoclassical style imparts an air of sobriety and sophistication appropriate to its role as a court house. The Court House is distinguished by its free-standing, circular, interior staircase, with cantilevered stone steps rising three storeys in height without other means of support. Originally designed by local architect John Cunningham, the Court House was renovated in 1924 under the supervision of architect Garnet Wilson, following a devastating 1919 fire.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, HRS 1075, 1996
Seal Cove Smoked Herring Stands National Historic Site of Canada
Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick

The Seal Cove Smoked Herring Stands NHSC on Grand Manan Island consists of some 54 vernacular wooden buildings, most built between 1870 and 1930, and their associated landscape sited around a cove bounded by breakwaters at its mouth and a creek at its head. These stands are situated between the Atlantic ocean and the village and hills to their rear.

The heritage value of the site resides in the meeting of built and natural features in an aesthetic whole typical of vernacular maritime landscapes of the late 19th century.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1987
St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site of Canada
Saint Andrews, New Brunswick

Restored wooden blockhouse from War of 1812.

St. Andrews Blockhouse National Historic Site is situated in the picturesque seaside resort of St. Andrews, in southwestern New Brunswick. Here you will step back in time to an era of conflict along New Brunswick's border with the United States. Imagine a time when these neighbours were at war. Fearful of American invasion, townspeople built this blockhouse, to military specifications, during the War of 1812.

St. Andrews Blockhouse is a wooden defensive structure located on the west point of the harbour at the extreme edge of the historic town of St. Andrews, New Brunswick.

The heritage value of St. Andrews Blockhouse lies in its illustration of a specific type of defensive structure, and in its origins during the War of 1812. It was built in 1812-13 by the citizens of St. Andrews to safeguard against American raiders. During the late 19th century, it became a picturesque tourist attraction in the resort town of St. Andrews, then was acquired and restored by National Historic Sites (1962-1967). The blockhouse was seriously damaged by fire in 1993, and once again restored to its early appearance.

©Provincial Archives of New Brunswick /Archives provinciales du Nouveau-Brunswick, P11-189, ca. 1914
St. Andrews Historic Distric National Historic Site of Canada
St Andrews, New Brunswick

The St. Andrews Historic District comprises the original part of the present town of St. Andrews, New Brunswick. It is laid out as a grid of sixty blocks running back from the shoreline and has been built, over the years, with variations of classically inspired architecture. Commercial buildings are concentrated on the street running parallel to the harbour. The relatively spacious lots and the largely unbuilt commons surrounding the district provide a balance of greenery to this built landscape.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1995
St. Anne's Chapel of Ease National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

St. Anne's Chapel of Ease is a small, elegant, stone church built in 1846-7 in the Ecclesiological Gothic Revival style. It is centrally located within the city of Fredericton, New Brunswick, in a historic residential neighbourhood.

St. Anne's Chapel of Ease was designated a national historic site in 1989 because it is a significant example of Gothic Revival religious architecture based on the principles of the Ecclesiological Society.

St. Anne's Chapel of Ease reflects the early adoption of the principles of the Ecclesiological Society, an Anglican organization of English origin that promoted the use of medieval Gothic style church architecture as a model for parish churches of the 19th century. The Bishop of New Brunswick, John Medley, actively promoted the style in the design and construction of churches in Atlantic Canada beginning with his appointment as Bishop 1845. St. Anne's Chapel of Ease, constructed at the same time as Fredericton's Christ Church Cathedral, served as a model for the principles Medley espoused. The fine stained glass lancet windows were created by two firms: Beers of Exeter and Warrington of London.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1992
St. John's Anglican Church / Stone Church National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John, New Brunswick

St. John's Anglican Church, familiarly called "the stone church" is an early Anglican church built in 1823-6 in the Romantic Gothic Revival style. The church includes a chancel in the Ecclesiological Gothic style and is attached to the church hall, both built after the original construction period. The church is prominently located on Carleton Street at the head of Wellington Row, a steeply graded street in the downtown area of the city of Saint John, New Brunswick.

St. John's Anglican Church was designated a national historic site in 1987 because it is one of the earliest and best examples of a Gothic Revival church, in the Romantic phase, in Canada.

St. John's reflects the earliest phase of the Gothic Revival in Canada, a transitional phase between the classical tradition and revived Gothic architecture, known as Romantic Gothic Revival. Built in 1823-6 to designs by John Cunningham, St. John's is typical of the Romantic Gothic Revival style in its use of the forms and composition of 18th century classicism, over which Gothic embellishments have been applied. St. John's is one of the earliest manifestations of this style in Canada. The church became known as the "Stone Church" for its use of stone, an unusual choice in a colony where wood was the usual building material at this early phase. The church includes a chancel built in 1872 to designs by local architect Matthew Stead, which follows a later, more historically correct phase of the Gothic Revival, known as Ecclesiological Gothic Revival.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2003
St. Luke's Anglican Church National Historic Site of Canada
Quispamsis, New Brunswick

St. Luke's Anglican Church National Historic Site of Canada, located in Quispamsis, New Brunswick, is a late example of the Wren-Gibbsian church. The simple massing, subtle proportions, and restrained decoration, all executed skilfully in wood, bear witness to the ability of classicism to adapt to virtually any circumstance, giving quiet dignity to even very modest structures.

Built from 1831 to 1833, this fine vernacular example of classical architecture represents the culmination of the pioneering phase of the Anglican Church in eastern Canada. It testifies to the efforts of Bishop John Inglis to spread Anglicanism throughout his diocese through church construction. A Wren-Gibbsian church, as defined by its auditory hall with classical detailing, St. Luke's represents a late expression of a tradition in Anglican church architecture than began in the late 17th century and continued until the early 19th. According to the founding architects James Gibb and Christopher Wren, small, classically decorated auditory halls were the best form for Anglican worship, since they allowed all parishoners to hear the sermon and liturgy. Virtually all Anglican churches were built according to the Wren-Gibbsian model until the mid-19th-century, and St. Luke's is the best surviving example of this style in New Brunswick.

Attributed to Edwin Fairweather, the design is noteworthy for its plan, symmetry, fine proportions, and classical details that speak to the influence of British classicism on colonial building. St. Luke's was a chapel of ease until 1988 when it became the parish church of Gondola Point.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1993
St. Paul's United Church National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

A severely handsome example of the High Victorian Gothic Revival style, St. Paul's United Church National Historic Site of Canada features the bold muscularity of the style, meshing historical revival details from several periods, richly varied and textured materials, and a voluminous interior designed for excellent acoustics. Located in downtown Fredericton, New Brunswick, the church with its tall spire is a city landmark.

Fashionable in Canada during the second half of the 19th century, the High Victorian Gothic Revival style is marked by a bold and vigorous approach to design, which freely interprets earlier Gothic precedents. This former Presbyterian church, built in 1886, features typical stylistic features including a soaring corner tower, intersecting roof ridges, richly varied details, and rusticated and polychrome stonework. The rose window, derived from the French Gothic, indicates a new openness toward non-English design sources at this time. The huge interior well is surrounded on three sides by a capacious sloping balcony and features pews arranged in a semi-circle so that they face the pulpit and the large Casavant organ. The sumptuous interior decor includes rich Gothic-inspired woodwork, decorative painting, stained glass, and a vaulted ceiling.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1989
St. Stephen Post Office National Historic Site of Canada
St. Stephen, New Brunswick

The St. Stephen Post Office National Historic Site of Canada is a splendid two-and-a-half-storey brick and stone structure executed in the Romanesque Revival style, featuring contrasting colours and textures of materials, a symmetrical elevation with paired entrances and a prominent central gable with decorative carving. Prominently sited on one of the town's major streets, it now serves as the town hall.

Built from 1885 to 1887, this building was constructed to house the local post office, customs offices and internal revenue offices. Designed under the federal government's chief architect Thomas Fuller, the structure is one of a series of buildings erected with the aim of establishing a visible federal presence throughout the country. It is a fine example of late 19th-century design in its picturesque composition and in the varied colours and textures of the exterior building materials. The round-arched doors and windows and the decorative carving show the influence of the Romanesque Revival style. Since 1965, this building has served as the St. Stephen town hall.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1987
Tilley House National Historic Site of Canada
Gagetown, New Brunswick

Tilley House National Historic Site of Canada is a one-and-a-half-storey clapboard house located on a spacious lot in the town of Gagetown, New Brunswick. It is believed to be the birthplace of Father of Confederation Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley, who lived in the house until he was thirteen years old. Typical of houses built in the 1780s in the Maritimes, it owes its hewn timber-frame construction to the Loyalist building tradition.

It is believed that Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley (1818 - 1896) was born in this house. Originally built for a Dr. Stickles, probably in the late eighteenth century, the house was purchased by Samuel Tilley, Sir Leonard's great grandfather in 1805. It was considerably enlarged about the time that Sir Leonard Tilley left in the 1830s, with an addition to the north side and alterations to the original south end. By 1897, the house had been converted for use as a hotel. It is now managed by the Queens County Museum.

Sir Leonard Tilley spent his boyhood in this house, leaving Gagetown for work in Saint John at the age of thirteen. By 1850 he had entered politics, serving as Member of the Legislative Assembly for Saint John, later Member of Parliament for Saint John and eventually Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick and a federal cabinet minister. He was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1879.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 2002
Tonge's Island National Historic Site of Canada
Sackville, New Brunswick

Tonge's Island National Historic Site of Canada is located on a triangular section of land known as the Tantramar Marsh, near Sackville, New Brunswick. An important Acadian settlement, the site consists of a low hill covered with brackish marshland, known as Tonge's Island, located on the western side of the Missiguash River.

In 1676, Michel le Neuf de la Vallière was granted a small section of land on the southwest coast of the Isthmus of Chignecto, across the Missiguash River from the small Acadian settlement of Beaubassin. La Vallière set up his manor west of the river, on a low hill surrounded by brackish marshland. His small settlement expanded, with the Acadians applying their aboiteaux to slowly drain and desalinate the marshes, and eventually a stockade and a mill were constructed.

When la Vallière became the governor of Acadia in 1678, his settlement on Tonge's Island became the capital. The settlement served as the capital of Acadia until 1684 when, because of a dispute with other seigneurs over the granting of fishing licenses to Bostonian ships, the French stripped la Vallière of his governorship. The settlement at Tonge's Island languished for the next century while the community of Beaubassin across the river grew into an important Acadian town. When tensions rose between the British and French, the Beaubassin villagers fled west across the Missiguash River to the newly built Fort Beauséjour on the ridge north of the marsh, and their new settlement became focused there, rather than on the less-defensible Tonge's Island.



©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Trinity Church and Rectory National Historic Site of Canada
Kingston, New Brunswick

The Trinity Church and Rectory National Historic Site of Canada consists of a conventional Georgian designed basilican church and a two-storey Georgian residence built in 1789. Standing on opposite sides of Route 845 in the village of Kingston, New Brunswick, they constitute a rare example of both a church and its associated rectory surviving from the 18th century.

Loyalists arrived in Kingston in 1784, and made provisions for the establishment of an Anglican Church. A hilltop site was selected in 1787, and both the church and the rectory were constructed by 1789. Although the 19th century saw successive improvements and expansions in the Gothic Revival style, Trinity Church follows the conventional basilican pattern of a longitudinal nave with the entrance at one end and the altar at the other. Trinity Church retains some of the harmonious sobriety usually associated with Georgian design.

The Rectory was constructed in 1787-88 to house the first resident minister and his family. It has retained much of its traditional, unpretentious form, and still exhibits many characteristics of a middle-class home of the Georgian period. The Trinity Church and Rectory form a remarkable unit, since surviving examples of both these buildings from the 18th century appear to be rare in the Maritimes.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1992.
William Brydone Jack Observatory National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

The William Brydone Jack Observatory National Historic Site of Canada is a small structure, consisting of an octagonal tower topped with an octagonal conical roof, with a one-storey, gable roofed portion to one side. The building is covered with wooden clapboarding, and simple wooden mouldings and brackets under the roof finish the exterior surfaces. The interior volumes are also plain and serviceable.

The William Brydon Jack Observatory was built in 1851 at the instigation of William Brydone Jack, professor of mathematics, natural philosophy and astronomy; and president of the University of New Brunswick, 1861-65. Schooled in the traditions of Scottish universities, he equipped the observatory with the best instruments of the day. In collaboration with Harvard observatory he determined the longitude of Fredericton and other places in New Brunswick, and corrected errors in international boundaries.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada
Wolastoq National Historic Site of Canada
Saint John River, New Brunswick

Wolastoq, Saint John's River National Historic Site of Canada consists of the cultural landscape along the river extending 700 kilometres in a broad arc from its headwaters in Québec and northern Maine to its mouth at Saint John Harbour, Bay of Fundy. Located principally in the province of New Brunswick, eastern Canada, the watershed represents the traditional territory of the Wolastoqiyik First Nation. The river has three components: the upper leg, from its headwaters in Quebec and Maine, flows into New Brunswick past Edmundston; the middle leg, from the confluence of the Aroostook and Tobique rivers, flows southeast to Mactaquac; from Mactaquac the lower leg, an extensive tidal estuary of lakes, wetlands, and islands, runs 140 kilometres to Saint John Harbour. The entire drainage system has nurtured the Wolastoqiyik, who travelled it, and gained nourishment from plants and animals in and around its waters.

The heritage value of Wolastoq (Saint John River) is reflected in the cultural landscape along the river. It also resides in the river's important role in the life, culture, and spirituality of the Wolastoqiyik First Nation. The Wolastoq River, its lakes and tributaries connect with the Wolastoqiyik people through their oral histories that give meaning to the history of the landscape as the Wolastoqiyik know it. Wolastoq means "the Beautiful River" in the Maliseet language, while Wolastoqiyik means "the People of the Beautiful River". While this territory includes many sites of settlement, communication, resource utilization, and spirituality, it is specifically the Wolastoq itself, its lakes and tributaries that connects these sites and unites the Wolastoqiyik as a nation. The watershed represents the traditional territory of the Wolastoqiyik and includes many sites of settlement, communication, resource utilization and spirituality. The many Aboriginal place names throughout the watershed link past and present, complementing elders' stories of traditional uses and evidence from archaeology.

©Parks Canada Agency / Agence Parcs Canada, 1992
York County Court House National Historic Site of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick

York County Court House is a two-storey, red-brick building built in 1857-58. It is located in the downtown area of the city of Fredericton.

York County Court House was designated a national historic site in 1980 because it is representative of a significant functional type; and it is unique among extant court houses in the Maritimes in its amalgamation of market and court uses under one roof.

Built in 1857-8, the York County Court House is the earliest surviving New Brunswick court house constructed of brick. It represents the beginning of a trend toward the widespread use of brick and stone in public buildings in the province, primarily for reasons of fire safety.

The building was designed to house a market on the ground floor, and court rooms on the second storey. This combination, which arose as a result of a restrictive land grant entered into by the county at the beginning of the 19th century, is unique among surviving Maritime public buildings. Given the diverse demands of the two functions, the marriage of market and court house was never a happy one. The market space was largely converted to court offices in 1882-3.

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Last Updated: 06-Nov-2014