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Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 9

The Canadian Lighthouse

by Edward F. Bush

Appendix: Regional Agencies and their pre-1880 Lighthouses

In the following appendix under the headings of the various regional agencies will be found brief tabular data on lighthouses built before 1880 and still substantially in their original condition. By this is primarily meant the tower, or in some cases, the house or attached dwelling; lanterns have more often than not been replaced as has been the original optical apparatus, particularly in the case of those lights originally fitted with catoptric (C) or reflector type (D) apparatus.

St. John's Agency

Baccalieu Island
48°09'N 52°48'W
built 1859
tower: circular, cast-iron, height unknown likely original, poor condition
light: D., gas
area: Conception Bay

Belle Isle, South End
lower 51°53'N 55°23'W
built 1880
tower: masonry foundation on cliff, circular steel tower, height 23 ft.
light: D., 2d Order

Belle Isle, South End
upper 51°53'N 55°23'W
built 1858
tower: circular, stone, height 59 ft. clapboarded attached dwelling (both original) dwelling renovated
light: D., electric

47°31'N 55°25'W
built 1873
tower: may be original; original circular iron; re-built slightly in new location 1931; present tower circular steel
light: acetylene

Cape Pine
46°37'N., 53°32'W
built 1861
tower: circular, iron, red and white bands; lower 10 ft. encased in concrete (hexagonal); said to be in good condition; height not known
light: D., electric

Point Amour
51°27'N 56°52'W
built 1855
tower: circular, stone, height 104 ft., attached dwelling, masonry strapped and shingled exterior; repaired in 1957
light: D., 2d Order

Rocky Point
47°29'N 55°48'W
built 1873
tower: iron, circular, height 20 ft., concrete foundation
light: acetylene (harbour light)

Dartmouth Agency

Cape Negro
43°30'N 65°21'W,
built 1872
tower: octagonal, height 44 ft., local authority not sure this is the original
light: C., long focus

Cape North
47°02'N 60°24'W,
built 1876
tower: cylindrical iron, painted red; height 47 ft.; regional authority not sure whether this is the original
light: D., 3rd Order

Ciboux Island (Cape Breton)
46°23'N 60°22'W
built 1863
structure: rectangular house, polygonal lantern on roof; original
light: D., 7th Order

East Ironbound
44°26'N 64°05'W
built 1867
tower: unusual structure; square wooden tower rising steeple-like from front end, oblong dwelling; tower 40 ft., shingled exterior; houses fog alarm & storage batteries: ground floor originally kitchen; second storey originally bedrooms; four straight flights of stairs; interior walls lined with matched lumber
lantern: polygonal, iron
light: electric

45°28'N 6°29'W
built 1846
tower: square, frame, height 35 ft., rises from roof of dwelling; may be the original
light: D., electric (M.V.)

Sambro Island
44°26'N 63°34'W
built 1758 (oldest extant in Canada)
tower: octagonal, stone with reinforcing cement; shingled exterior; height 82 ft.; spiral stairway in tower renewed but with original configuration
lantern: new (aluminium): lantern deck or platform consisting of 2-3 ft. thick concrete base; new; lantern installed 1969
light: airport-type rotating beacon; original dioptic apparatus now on display, local museum

Charlottetown Agency

Big Shippegan
47°43'N 64°40'W,
built 1872
tower: wood. octagonal, height 54 ft.; square cribwork foundation
lantern: round with octagonal lantern platform

Blockhouse Point
46°11'N 63°08'W
built 1851
structure: tower combined with dwelling; frame; tongue & groove wall-boarding interior; tower square with slight taper; height 40 ft.; dwelling original except for roof and chimney ground floor: parlour, kitchen & 2 bedrooms; second floor: bathroom, 4 bedrooms
lantern: octagonal, cast-iron; lantern platform may be more recent

Cape Jourimain
46°09'N 63°48'W,
built 1870
tower: frame, octagonal, height 51 ft.
light: D., 4th Order
This may be the original; in any case, has been moved several times

East Point
46°27'N 61°58'W
built 1867 (moved 1885)
tower: octagonal, frame, height 64 ft. not sure that this the original but in-formed timbers hand-hewn; shingled exterior
light: electric

North Point
47°03'N 63°59'W
built 1866
tower: wood, octagonal, height 62 ft.
light: C., long focus; changed to D., electric 1970. Agency states this likely the original; has been moved several times

Panmure Head
46°09'N., 62°28'W
built 1853
tower: octagonal, frame, shingled; hand-hewn timbers; 3 landings, straight flights of stairs; reshingled in 1956; in foundation original masonry replaced with concrete lantern: polygonal; new lantern platform in 1950s
light: dioptric apparatus made in Charlottetown

Point Prim
46°03'N 63°02'W
built: 1846 (oldest in P.E.I.)
tower: circular, brick, shingled exterior, height 60 ft; central weight shaft; 4 landings
lantern: polygonal, original lantern platform thought original; pipe railing, exterior gallery, later addition
light: D., electric (M.V.)

Seacow Head
46°19'N., 63°49'W
built 1863
tower: wood, octagonal, stone foundation faced with cement (later date), weight shaft intact; 3 landings with straight flights of stairs; ladder leading to lantern; 3 cast-iron tie rods at each landing running horizontally across tower for bracing
lantern: polygonal (12-sided); lined interior with tongue & groove lumber to waist height
light: D., electric

Souris East
46°21'N., 62°15'W.
built 1880
tower: frame, square. sloping sides, shingled with gabled windows; 2 interior landings, straight runs of stairs; central weight shaft
lantern: round with 3 panels obscured (light not required in that quarter); lantern interior lined with tongue & groove lumber to waist height
dwelling: originally attached to tower, now separate

West Point
46°37'N 64°23'W
built 1876
tower: grey sandstone foundation on cribwork of cedar logs; stone from N.B.; frame with sloping sides, shingled exterior; very heavy timbers; height about 80 ft.; 26 ft. square at base; 3 landings with straight flights of stairs; inner walls plastered; originally bedrooms located ground floor and first landing; original attached dwelling now demolished
lantern; polygonal, cast-iron; light oil vapour until 1963 when converted to electricity
Legend that Captain Kidd buried treasure in the dunes north of the lighthouse; also that a mysterious burning ship visible offshore at times

Wood Island
45°57'N 62°44'W
built 1876
tower: square, frame, sloping sides, shingled, attached dwelling; height 50 ft.; 2 interior landings, straight flights of stairs; windows at each landing
lantern: octagonal; lantern platform & railing appear comparatively new light: D.

Saint John Agency

Church Point
44°20'N 65°08'W
built 1874
tower: wood, square, height 20 ft.; dwelling attached
light: D., 4th Order

Gannet Rock
44°31'N 66°47'W
built 1831
tower: stone foundation cemented over; octagonal frame with attached dwelling; exterior shingling; windows each face; 6 storeys in tower; some timbers apparently handhewn
dwelling: 2 storeys, with kitchen, parlour, bedroom
lantern: removed in 1967; substitution rotating beacon

Fanjoy Point
45°54'N 66°01'W
built 1873
tower: square, frame, height 20 ft.
light: D., 7th Order

Mark Point
45°10'N 57°13'W
built 1876
tower: frame. sloping sides, square
lantern: square, frame
The Mark Point, Church Point and Walton lighthouses are of similar design,
built in the 1870s

Seal Island
43°24'N 66°01'W
built 1830
tower: octagonal, wood, height 67 ft.; shingled: 4 landings, straight flights of stairs
light: oil vapour until 1959; since D., 2nd Order
Structure appears very much in its original condition

44°25'N 66°01'W
built 1870
tower: square, frame, height 33 ft.
lantern: apparently square, presumably of wood; regional authority states only minor repairs effected

Swallow Tail
44°46'N 66°44'W
built 1860
tower: frame, octagonal, shingled, height 53 ft.; interior plastered; 2 main landings and a half landing; straight flights of stairs
lantern: new (aluminum) also lantern platform since 1969
light: original Barbier & Turenne optic now fitted with 500 w.; D., 4th Order

Walton Harbour
45°14'N 65°01'W
built 1873
tower: square, wood, height 31 ft.
lantern: polygonal, apparently frame, with copper roof; square lantern platform with wooden railing

Quebec Agency

Bicquette Island
48°25'N 68°54'W
built 1844
tower: circular, stone, boarded: height 74 ft.
lantern: circular light: D., electric

Bon Ami Point
48°04'N., 66°21'W
built 1870
tower: square, wood, height 33 ft.
Repaired in 1965, regional authority believes this to be the original

47°53'N., 69°48'W
built 1862
tower: circular, brick, painted white and rising from middle of roof of frame house; height 39 ft.
light: D., 4th Order

48°52'N 64°12'W.
built 1858
tower: circular, limestone, height 112 ft. (base to vane); exterior lined with firebrick, interior coated with plaster; walls 7 ft. 3 in. thick at base and 3 ft. at top; base diameter 25 ft. top diameter 17 ft.; nine storey; new enamel brick on exterior of recent date
lantern: likely the original (round)
light: D., 1st Order; optic the original Barbier & Turenne

Grand Ile Kamouraska
47°37'N., 69°52'W.
built 1862
tower: square, frame height 39 ft., attached dwelling dating from 1913
light: D., gas

Green Island
48°03'N 69°25'W
built 1809
tower: circular, stone, clapboarded; height 56 ft.
light: D., 4th Order

Long Pilgrim
47°43'N 69°45'W
built 1862
tower: circular, brick on square dwelling; height 39 ft.
light: D., gas.

Maquereau Point
48°12'N 64°46'W
built 1874
tower: octagonal, wood, height 51 ft.
light: D., gas

Red Islet
48°04'N 69°33'W
built 1848
tower: stone, circular, painted grey, height 64 ft.
lantern: iron, circular, painted red
light: C., long focus

Stone Pillar
47°12'N., 70°22'W,
built 1843
tower: 52 ft. lantern: polygonal
Similar to Red Islet lighthouse

Prescott Agency

Burlington Bay
43°18'N 79°48'W
built 1838
tower: circular, stone, height 79 ft., with slight taper; 4 landings and spiral stairs
lantern: cast-iron, polygonal; concrete platform
Removed from service in 1961

Deep River Islet
46°00'N 77°16'W
built 1873
tower: square, wood, height 27 ft.
light: D., 6th Order

Gibraltar Point
43°37'N 79°23'W
built 1808
tower: hexagonal, stone, present height 82 ft. (original 67 ft.) spiral stair case; door with rounded arch; central weight shaft
lantern: not the original (probably dates from 1870s or 1880s)
Informed at the location that the original height of the tower was 52 ft., extended in 1832 to 82 ft. differing slightly from figures culled from light lists

Knapp Point
44°14'N., 76°23'W
built 1847
tower: square, wood, height 20 ft.
lantern: removed, replaced with buoy structure and rotating beacon

Morris Island
45°27'N 76°16'W
built 1873
tower: square, wood, height 29 ft.; one landing with straight stairs
lantern: hexagonal frame with conical roof; no glazing

Nine Mile Point
44°09'N., 76°33'W
built 1833
tower: circular, stone, height 40 ft.; 4 landings and 5 straight runs of stairs, walls 2-1/2 ft. to 3 ft. thick; structure unfortunately not in good condition due to deteriorating mortar lantern: polygonal, iron, with external gallery
light: C., 3 parabolic reflectors of copper lined with quicksilver

Point Petre
44°50'N 77°09'W
built 1833
tower: circular, stone height 60 ft.
lantern: removed; light no longer in use; Point Petre and Nine Mile Point very similar in structure and design except that Point Petre was considerably higher

Port Dalhousie, back range
43°13'N., 79°15'W.
built 1852
tower: wood, octagonal, painted white
lantern: polygonal, red, platform same shape

River Thames, back range
42°19'N., 82°27'W
built 1845
tower: circular, stone (coursed rubble), precarious condition

Scotch Bonnet
43°54'N., 77°33'W
built 1855
tower: circular, stone, height 54 ft. (base to vane), slight taper
Taken out of service probably in 1959

Windmill Point
44°43'N 75°29'W
built prior to 1838; converted to lighthouse, 1873
tower: circular, stone, height 92 ft.
lantern: polygonal light: D., 5th Order

Wolf Island
44°14'N 76°11'W
built 1861
tower: square, wood, height 33 ft.
lantern: removed, buoy structure in its place

Parry Sound Agency

Chantry Island
44°29'N 81°24'W
built 1859
tower: circular, stone, whitewashed, height 86 ft., slight taper
lantern: removed

Clapperton Island
46°03'N 82°14'W
built 1866
tower: wood, square, pronounced taper
lantern: platform square, lantern polygonal
light: D., 6th Order

Gereux Island
45°45'N 80°40'W,
built 1870
tower: square, wood, sloping sides, attached dwelling; height 48 ft.
light: D., 4th Order
The dwelling is deteriorating and will most likely be pulled down in the near future

43°45'N 81°44'W
built 1847
tower: stone, square, height 20 ft.; walls about 1-1/2 ft. to 2 ft. thick, perpendicular; one landing
lantern: square lantern platform with slight overhang; pipe railing; polygonal lantern
light: D., electric

Gore Bay
45°57'N., 82°29'W
built 1879
tower: square, wood, height 30 ft.; dwelling attached
This and the Strawberry Island lighthouse are of similar design

Griffith Island
44°51'N 80°53'W
built 1859
tower: circular, stone. slight taper. height 61 ft.; one of the so-called "imperial" series
light: D., 5th Order

Killarney East
45°58'N 81°29'W
built 1866
tower: wood. square, pronounced taper, height 20 ft.; half landing within
lantern: platform with pronounced overhang; polygonal lantern; pipe railing round exterior gallery
The west light is almost identical and built the same year

44°11'N., 81°39'W
built 1881
tower: hexagonal, frame, sloping sides; 3 landings in tower with straight flights of stairs; attached 2-winged dwelling
lantern: polygonal

Lonely Island
45°34'N., 81°28'W
built 1870
tower: wood, octagonal, height 54 ft.

Mississagi Strait
45°54'N., 83°13'W.
built 1873
tower: square, wood, slight taper. height 37 ft.; attached dwelling
lantern: octagonal with square platform
No longer in use, with new tower built; no plans (at time of writing) for disposal

Nottawasaga Island
44°32'N., 80°08'W.
built 1859
tower: circular, stone, height 82 ft.; slight taper with walls 6 ft. to 7 ft. thick at base and 2 ft. at top, white washed; stone thought to be limestone or granite (local legend states brought out from Scotland in ballast); 6 landings and straight flights of stairs; weight shaft on inner wall and weights still stored in light room; windows at each landing
lantern: polygonal, iron, presently using an AGA acetylene beacon controlled by AGA sun switch. Photo taken on lantern platform or outer gallery; railing maybe original

Point Clark
44°04'N., 81°46'W.
built 1859
tower: circular, stone, (stone reported from Inverhuron & Kingston); whitewashed
height 87 ft.; walls about 7 ft. thick at base
light: D., 4th Order

Pointe aux Pins (Main Light)
46°28'N., 84°28'W.
built 1873
tower: square, wood, height 23 ft.
light: D., 4th Order

Quebec Harbour
47°43'N., 85°48'W.
built 1872
structure: house with light in dormer window
Several similar structures on Lake Superior

Southampton Harbour
44°28'N., 81°24'W.
built 1877
tower: square, wood, pronounced taper, height 28 ft.
lantern: square

Victoria Agency

Entrance Island (Nanaimo)
49°13'N., 123°48'W,
built 1876
structure: square frame house, painted white, red roof
lantern: square lantern platform with railed external gallery and polygonal lantern mounted centre of roof; height 44 ft.
light: C., electric
(Photo answers this description, but at time of writing not sure that it is indeed the Entrance Island lighthouse. Intended demolition in near future)

48°26'N., 123°27'W.
built 1850
tower: circular, brick, height 56 ft.; red brick house attached
Custody of the crown but, still in service as a navigational aid

Race Rocks
48°18'N., 123°32'W
built 1860
tower: circular, stone, black & white bands, height 105 ft.; dwelling attached; minor repairs top of tower
light: C., long focus
Dwelling may be pulled down

87 Lighthouses on the Atlantic Coast. (click on image for a PDF version)

88 Lighthouses in the Great Lakes region and the upper St. Lawrence. (click on image for a PDF version)

89 West Coast lighthouses. (click on image for a PDF version)

90 Lights in sub-Arctic waters. (click on image for a PDF version)

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