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Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 9

The Canadian Lighthouse

by Edward F. Bush




     Trinity House

Lighthouse Structure

     Basic Principles of Lighthouse Design and Location
     British Structural Design
     Canadian Tower Construction

Apparatus: Lights and Optics

     The Whale-oil Lamp
     Parabolic Reflectors: Catoptric Principle
     Lenses: Dioptric Principle
     The Coal-oil Lamp
     The Gas Mantle
     Revolving Lights and Colour Characteristics
     Light Characteristics
     Fog Alarms
     Diaphone Apparatus
     Submarine Signaling Apparatus


Lighthouses Along the Atlantic Coast

     The Louisbourg Lighthouse
     Sambro Island
     McNutt Island
     Seal Island
     Bay of Fundy
     Gannet Rock
     Machias Seal Island
     Brier Island
     St. Paul Island
     Scatarie Island
     Fort Amherst
     Cape Spear
     Harbour Grace Island
     Cape Bonavista
     Cape Pine
     Cape Race
     Cape St. Mary's
     Cape Ray and Channel Head

The Gulf, Northumberland Strait and the Lower St. Lawrence

     Belle Isle
     Point Amour
     Bird Rocks
     Anticosti Island
     Point Escuminac
     Miscou Island
     Point Prim
     Father Point
     Green Island
     Stone Pillar and Red Islet
     Bicquette Island

The Great Lakes Region and the Upper St. Lawrence

     Lake Ontario
     Mississauga Point
     Gibraltar Point
     False Ducks Island
     Point Petre
     Nine Mile Point
     Queen's Wharf
     Port Dalhousie
     Lake Erie
     Long Point
     Pelee Island
     River Thames
     Lake Huron
     Imperial Towers
     Killarney Channel
     Lonely Island
     Gore Bay and Strawberry Island
     Lake Superior
     Quebec Harbour and Porphyry Island
     Upper St. Lawrence River

The Pacific Coast

     Fisgard Island
     Race Rocks
     Point Atkinson
     Berens Island and Entrance Island
     Cape Beale
     Sand Heads
     Carmanah Point
     Brockton Point
     Cape St. James
     Triple Island

Sub-Arctic Waters: Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay

     Initial Aids in Hudson Strait
     Radio Aids

Selected Inland Waterways

     Ottawa River
     Lake Nipigon
     Lake Winnipeg
     MacKenzie River System

Appendix: Regional Agencies and their pre-1880 Lighthouses



Index (omitted from the online edition)


1 Harbour light, Western Gap, Toronto Harbour.

2 Drawings of typical lighthouse structures.

3 Cape Bonavista light apparatus.

4 1st Order revalving light, used in major landfall lights.

5 1st Order dioptric revolving light in lantern.

6 Oil lamps used in lighthouses in the 19th century.

7 Flat-wick lamps for coal oil.

8 Oil vapour lights with incandescent mantles.

9 Two types of rotary machines.

10 Occulting apparatus, Machias Seal Island.

11 Mercury vapour electric light.

12 A 300-mm. lantern with mercury vapour light.

13 First steam fog alarm, Saint John Harbour, N.B.

14 Stone Chance electronic fog alarm.

15 Early diaphone fog alarm, 1904

16 Louisbourg lighthouse.

17 Lantern and light apparatus, Louisbourg lighthouse.

18 Drawings of Louisbourg lighthouse.

19 Sambro Island lighthouse.

20 East Ironbound lighthouse.

21 Seal Island lighthouse.

22 Yarmouth or Cape Fourchu lighthouse.

23 Typical harbour light, Dalhousie, N.B.

24 Gannet Rock lighthouse.

25 Grand Harbour lighthouse, Grand Manan Island.

26 Walton Harbour lighthouse.

27 St. Paul Island lighthouse.

28 St. Paul Island, southwest point.

29 Fort Amherst lighthouse.

30 Cape Spear lighthouse.

31 Trinity North lighthouse, Newfoundland.

32 Cape Bonavista lighthouse.

33 Cape Pine lighthouse.

34 Cape Race lighthouse.

35 Rose Blanche lighthouse, Newfoundland.

36 Channel Head lighthouse.

37 Belle Isle lighthouse, north end lighthouse.

38 Belle Isle, south end, upper.

39 Belle Isle, south end, lower lighthouse.

40 Point Amour lighthouse.

41 Bird Rocks lighthouse, Gulf of St. Lawrence.

42 Landing stage and trestle, Bird Rocks Island.

43 Bird Rocks lighthouse.

44 Pointe-des-Monts lighthouse.

45 Cap Chat lighthouse.

46 Anticosti Island, Southwest Point.

47 Mark Point lighthouse.

48 Blockhouse Point lighthouse.

49 West Point lighthouse, P.E.I.

50 Cap-des-Rosiers lighthouse.

51 Cap-des-Rosiers lighthouse.

52 Red Islet lighthouse, built in 1848.

53 Mississauga lighthouse.

54 Mississauga Point lighthouse.

55 Gibraltar Point lighthouse.

56 Gibraltar Point lighthouse.

57 False Ducks Island lighthouse.

58 Presqu'lle lighthouse.

59 Burlington lighthouse.

60 Queen's Wharf lighthouse.

61 Former lighthouse near Long Point Bay, Lake Erie.

62 Plan of Point Pelee lighthouse, 1858.

63 River Thames range light.

64 Goderich lighthouse.

65 Point Clark lighthouse.

66 Southampton Harbour lighthouse.

67 Cove Island lighthouse.

68 Nottawasaga Island lighthouse.

69 Griffith Island lighthouse.

70 Red Rock Point lighthouse.

71 Clapperton Island lighthouse.

72 Kincardine range light.

73 Gore Bay lighthouse, Manitoulin Island.

74 Strawherry Island lighthouse.

75 Quebec Harbour lighthouse, Lake Superior.

76 Windmill Point lighthouse.

77 Fisgard Island lighthouse.

78 Race Rocks lighthouse.

79 Point Atkinson lighthouse.

80 Entrance Island lighthouse.

81 Triple Island lighthouse.

82 Brockton Point lighthouse, Vancouver Harbour.

83 Deep River Islet lighthouse, Ottawa River.

84 Arnprior Island lighthouse.

85 Morris Island lighthouse.

86 Killarney East range light.

B7 Lighthouseson the Atlantic Coast.

88 Lighthouses in the Great Lakes region and the upper St. Lawrence.

89 West Coast lighthouses.

90 Lights in sub-Arctic waters.

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