Parks Canada History
Geology of Canada's National Parks

Geology of Canada's National Parks

In 1959 the Geological Survey of Canada agreed to prepare and publish a series of geological pamphlets that would facilitate work of the national parks' interpretation staff. The first of the series was published in 1960, entitled The Story of the Mountains in Banff National Park. This was written by Dr. Helen R. Belyea of the regional office of the Geological Survey at Calgary.

In January 1960, the National Parks Branch engaged Dr. David M. Baird, chairman of the Department of Geology at the University of Ottawa, to prepare a small illustrated pocket guide that would assist in the interpretation of geological phenomena in the national parks. Later that year, it was published as A Guide to Geology for Visitors in Canada's National Parks, and made available at a cost of $1.50.

The popularity of this guide led the Geological Survey of Canada to engage Dr. Baird to continue the series of books on the geology of the mountain national parks which had been initiated by Dr. Belyea. Between 1962 and 1967 Dr. Baird completed the text and provided pictures and sketches for guides to most of the mountain parks in Canada, which were published by the Geological Survey of Canada. Well illustrated, they provided excellent descriptions of the mountains, alpine lakes, glaciers and other physical features accessible by motor highway or walking trails in Banff, Jasper, Yoho, Kootenay, Waterton Lakes, Glacier and Mount Revelstoke National Parks. Dr. Baird expanded this series to provide geological histories of Prince Edward Island, Fundy, and Terra Nova Parks, and the national parks of Ontario.

In 1974 the Geological Survey resumed publication of geological guides to the national parks, which were written by Dr. Arthur H. Lang, a retired member of the Geological Survey staff. These additional guides describe Elk Island, Prince Albert, Riding Mountain and Pacific Rim National Parks.

—W. F. Lothian
from Chapter 11 to
A History of Canada's National Parks, Volume IV


Parks Canada

book coverCamsell, Charles, 1914. Guide to the Geology of the Canadian National Parks on the Canadian Pacific Railway between Calgary and Revelstoke, Department of the Interior, 70 p. Coleman, A. P., 1914, 1921. Glaciers of the Rockies and Selkirks, Dominion Parks Branch, Department of the Interior, 36 p. book cover
book cover______, 1914. The Nakimu Caves, Glacier Dominion Park, B.C., Dominion Parks Branch, Department of the Interior, 29 p. Kindle, E. M., c1929. The Geological Story of Jasper Park, Alberta, Canada, The National Parks of Canada, Department of the Interior, 48 p. book cover
book coverBaird, David M., 1963, 1966. A Guide to Geology for Visitors in Canada's National Parks, National Parks Branch, Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, 153 p. Baird, David M., 1966. Guide de Géologie, à l'usage des visiteurs des parcs nationaux du Canada, Direction des Ressources Naturelles et Historiques, Ministère du Nord Canadien et des Ressources Nationales, 169 p. book cover
book coverMacKay, B.R., 1952. Geology of the National Parks of Canada in the Rockies and Selkirks, The Minister of Resources and Development, 38 p. Greggs, R.G. and W.A. Gorman, 1976. Geology of the Thousand Islands Island Insights No. 2. Parks Canada, 53 p. book cover
book coverBrooks, G.R. and L.S. Lane, 2011. A guide to the landscape of the Firth River Valley, Ivvavik National Park, Parks Canada, 57 p.


Geological Survey of Canada

book coverBelyea, Helen R., 1960. The Story of the Mountains in Banff National Park, Miscellaneous Report 1, 73 p. Baird, D.M., 1962. Rocks and Scenery of Fundy National Park, Nova Scotia, Miscellaneous Report 2, 32 p. book cover
book cover
(1962 edition)
Baird, D.M., 1962, 1973 reprint. Prince Edward Island National Park: The living sands, Miscellaneous Report 3, 56 p.
book cover
(1973 edition)
book cover
(1962 edition)
Baird, D.M., 1962, 1968 Reprint. Yoho National Park, British Columbia: The mountains, the rocks, the scenery, Miscellaneous Report 4, 107 p.
book cover
(1968 edition)
book cover
(1962 edition)
Baird, D.M., 1962, 1965. Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia: Where the mountains meet the sea, Miscellaneous Report 5, 65 p.
book cover
(1965 edition)
book cover
(1963 edition)
Baird, D.M., 1963, 1966, 1977. Jasper National Park, Alberta: Behind the mountains and glaciers, Miscellaneous Report 6, 160 p. book cover
(1966 edition)
book cover
(1977 edition)
book coverBaird, D.M., 1963. The National Parks in Ontario: A story of islands and shorelines, Miscellaneous Report 7, 70 p. Baird, D.M., 1964. Kootenay National Park, British Columbia: Wild mountains and great valleys, Miscellaneous Report 9, 94 p. book cover
book coverBaird, D.M., 1964. Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta: Lakes amid the mountains, Miscellaneous Report 10, 95 p. Baird, D.M., 1965. Glacier and Mount Revelstoke National Park, British Columbia: Where rivers are born, Miscellaneous Report 11, 104 p. book cover
book coverBaird, D.M., 1966. Rocks and Scenery of Terra Nova National Park, Miscellaneous Report 12, 52 p. Yorath, C.J. and Gadd, B., 1995. Of Rocks, Mountains and Jasper, a Visitor's Guide to the Geology of Jasper National Park, 170 p. book cover
book cover
(1968 edition)
Baird, D.M., 1968, 1977. Banff National Park Alberta: How nature carves its splendour, Miscellaneous Report 13, 237 p.
book cover
(1977 edition)
book coverBaird, D.M., 1968. Guide to the Geology of the National Capital Area (Ottawa), Miscellaneous Report 15, 188 p. Lang, A.H., 1974. Guide to the Geology of Riding Mountain National Park, Miscellaneous Report 20, 68 p. book cover
book coverLang, A.H., 1974. Guide to the Geology of Prince Albert National Park: A story of hills, lakes and beaches, Miscellaneous Report 21, 40 p. Lang, A.H., 1974. Guide to the Geology of Elk Island National Park: The origin of its hills and other scenery, Miscellaneous Report 22, 30 p. book cover
book coverLang, A.H. and Muller, J.E. 1975. Pacific Rim National Park, the geology of Long Beach segment, Miscellaneous Report 24, 56 p. Harrison, John E., 1976. Evolution of a Landscape: The Quaternary Period in Waterton Lakes National Park, Miscellaneous Report 26, 33 p. book cover
book coverMorris, S.C. and H.B. Whittington, 1985. Fossils of the Burgess Shale, a national treasure in Yoho National Park, British Columbia Miscellaneous Report 43, 1985, 31 p. Morris, S.C. and H.B. Whittington, 1985. Les fossiles des schistes de Burgess : un trésor national dans le parc national de Yoho, Colombie-Britannique Miscellaneous Report 43, 1985, 31 p. book cover
book coverBerger, A.R., Bouchard, A., Brookes, I.A., Grant, D.R., Hay, S.G., and Stevens, R.K., 1992. Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland, Geology, Topography, and Vegetation, Miscellaneous Report 54, map and text. Berger, A.R., Bouchard, A., Brookes, I.A., Grant, D.R., Hay, S.G., and Stevens, R.K., 1992. Parc national du Gros-Morne, Terre-Neuve : géologie, topographie et végétation, Miscellaneous Report 54, map and text. book cover

Potter, D.P. and T. Goodwin, 2013. A teachers guide to the geology of York Redoubt National Historic Site of Canada Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 6964, 2013. 31 p.

Sladen, W.E., L.D. Dyke, S.L. Smith, 2009. Permafrost at York Factory National Historic Site of Canada, Manitoba, Canada Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research No. 2009-4, 2009, 13 p.

Medioli, B.E. and M.N. Demuth, 2009. Sub-bottom profiling results from Peyto Lake, Banff National Park, Alberta Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5728, 2009, 16 p.

Medioli, B.E. and M.N. Demuth, 2009. Reconnaissance sub-bottom profiling studies of Peyto Lake, Banff National Park Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5727, 2009, 1 p.

Zhang, Y., J. Li, X. Wang, W. Chen, W. Sladen, L. Dyke, and L. Dredge, 2012. Assessing the impacts of climate change on permafrost based on field observations and modelling/mapping — Wapusk National Park case study (from Climate Change Geoscience Program: 2006-2011 program final report, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 6879, 2012)

Dyke, L. and W. Sladen, 2012. Assessing the impact of climate change on permafrost based on field observations and modelling - Wapusk National Park case study: sub-activity: in-situ monitoring of permafrost dynamics in response to climate change (from Climate Change Geoscience Program: 2006-2011 program final report, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 6879, 2012)

X. Wang, Y. Zhang, R. Fraser and W. Chen, 2011. Evaluating the major controls on permafrost distribution in Ivvavik National Park based on process-based modelling Geological Survey of Canada, Scientific Presentation no. 9, 2011, 17 p.

R.B. Taylor, D. Frobel, A.O. Brown, R. Duggan and L. Reeves, 2011. Field guide for monitoring shoreline change, fortress of Louisbourg National Historical Site, Nova Scotia Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 6966, 2011, 140 p.

X. Wang, Y. Zhang, R. Fraser and W. Chen, 2010. Evaluating the major controls on permafrost distribution in Ivvavik National Park based on process-based modelling

Y. Zhang, J. Li, X. Wang, W. Chen, W. Sladen, L. Dyke, L. Dredge, J. Poitevin, D. McLennan, H. Stewart, S. Kowalchuk, W. Wu, G.P. Kershaw and R.K. Brook, 2010. Using remote sensing-based spatial modelling to assess the changes of permafrost in Wapusk National Park

Taylor, R.B. and D. Frobel, 2009. South Bay Ingohish and Black Brook Cove Beaches, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 6268, 2009, 97 p.

Caron, M-E., S.E. Grasby and M.C. Ryan, 2009. Spring geochemistry: a tool for mineral exploration in the south Nahanni River Basin of the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5344, 2007, 43 p.

McCurdy, M.W., R.J. McNeil, P.W.B. Friske, S.J.A. Day and R.S. Wilson, 2007. Stream sediment geochemistry in the proposed extension to the Nahanni Park Reserve Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5344, 2007, 24 p.

Charbonneau, B.W., 2007. Evaluation of airborne radiometric and magnetic data in the vicinity of the Nahanni National Park Reserve, Northwest Territories, Canada Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5344, 2007, 25 p.

Duk-Rodkin, A., D. Huntley and R. Smith, 2007. Quaternary geology and glacial limits of the Nahanni National Park Reserve and adjacent areas, Northwest Territories Canada Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5344, 2007, 5p.

Couture, R. and S.G. Evans, 2002. Site investigation at Rock Garden and Boulder Garden, Jasper National Park. 2002. 11 p.

Kottachchi, N., 2001. Fossils of the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada: distribution and biostratinomic change through time Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 4121, 2001, 143 p.

Couture, R. and S.G. Evans, 2001. Comments on debris flow activity at Five-Mile Creek, Banff National Park. Confidential Report, 2001. 3 p.

Couture, R. and S.G. Evans, 2000. The East Gate Landslide, Beaver Valley, Glacier National Park, Columbia Mountains, British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 3877, 2000, 26 p.

Couture, R. and S.G. Evans, 2000. Five-Mile Creek debris flow, Banff National Park, near Banff, Alberta, August 4, 1999. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 3876, 2000, 57 p.

Couture, R. and S.G. Evans, 2000. The 1999 debris flow near Banff, Banff National Park, Alberta. 2000, 6 p.

Rencz, A., K. Telmer, A. Sangster, P. Smith and D. Kliza, 1999. Preliminary GIS analysis of biogeochemical relationships, particularly Hg, in Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia. in Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research no. 1999-E, 1999.

Forbes, D L., 1997. Coastal erosion and nearshore profile variability in the southern Beaufort Sea, Ivvavik National Park, Yukon Territory Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 3531, 1997, 100 p.

Solomon, S M., 1996. Ivvavik National Park coastal erosion study Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 3323, 1996, 60 p.

Lin, S., 1992. The Structural Geology of the southeastern Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 2568, 1992, 1 p.

Raeside, R.P. and S.M. Barr, 1992. Geology of the northern and eastern Cape Breton Highlands, Nova Scotia, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 89-14, 1992, 39 p.

Barr, S.M., R.A. Jamieson and R.P. Raeside, 1992. Geology, Northern Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia Geological Survey of Canada, "A" Series Map 1752A, 1992; 1 p.

Dean, W.T., 1989. Trilobites from the Survey Peak, Outram and Skoki formations [upper cambrian-lower ordovician] at Wilcox Pass, Jasper National Park, Alberta, Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 389, 1989, 141 p.

Pritchard, M.A., K.W. Savigny and S.G. Evans, 1989. Deep - Seated Slope Movements in the Beaver River Valley, Glacier National Park, British Columbia Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 2011, 1989, 10 p.

Barr, S.M., 1987. Field Relations, Petrology and Age of Plutonic and Associated Metavolcanic and Metasedimentary Rocks, Fundy National Park Area, New Brunswick Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 87-1A, 1987, p. 18.

Findlay, D.C., C.F. Gleeson, R.T. Bell, W.D. Goodfellow and R.D. Lancaster, 1986. Mineral potential of the Mount Sedgwick area, Yukon Territory (Northern Yukon National Park resource assessment - phase II), Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 85-24, 1986, 24 p.

Taylor, R.B. and B.J. Kelly, 1985. Beach Observations Along the East Coast of Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1119, 1985, 33 p.

Rampton, V.N., 1981. Surficial materials and landforms of Kluane National Park, Yukon Territory Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 79-24, 1981, 37 p.

Gordey, S.P., 1981. Assessment of mineral and fuel resource potential of the proposed northern Yukon national park and adjacent areas (Phase 1), Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 760, 1981, 31 p.

Rampton, V.N., 1980. Quaternary Landforms, Kluane National Park, Yukon Territory Geological Survey of Canada, Preliminary Map 14-1979, 1980, 1 p.

Rampton, V.N., 1980. Surficial Materials, Kluane National Park, Yukon Territory Geological Survey of Canada, Preliminary Map 13-1979, 1980, 1 p.

Grant, D.R., 1977. Altitudinal Weathering Zones and Glacial Limits in western Newfoundland, With Particular Reference To Gros Morne National Park Report of Activities Part A; Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 77-1A, 1977, 9 p.

Harrison, J.E., 1976. Quaternary Geology, Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta Geological Survey of Canada, "A" Series Map 1422A, 1976, 1 p.

Cumming, L.M., 1975. Geology of the l'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park, northern Newfoundland Report of activities part A, April to October 1974, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 75-1A, 1975, 4 p.

Grant, D.R., 1975. Surficial geology and sea-level changes, L'Anse aux Meadows National Historical Park, Newfoundland Report of activities part A, April to October 1974, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 75-1A, 1975, 2 p.

Kuc, M., 1975. Paleoecological investigations of the Norse settlement site at L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland Report of activities part A, April to October 1974, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 75-1A, 1975, 6 p.

Mott, R.J., 1975. Palynological studies of peat monoliths from L'Anse aux Meadows Norse site, Newfoundland Report of activities part A, April to October 1974, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 75-1A, 1975, 4 p.

Muller, J.E., 1974. Victoria map area, (92B,C), Pacific Rim National Park, Vancouver Island, British Columbia Report of activities part A. April to October 1973, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 74-1A, 1974, 3 p.

Cumming, L.M., 1973. Geology of the proposed Gros Morne National Park, western Newfoundland Report of activities, part A: April to October 1972, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 73-1A, 1973, 3 p.

Muller, J.E., 1973. Geology of Pacific Rim National Park Report of activities, part A: April to October 1972, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 73-1A, 1973, 9 p.

Bostock, H.H. and L.M. Cumming, 1973. Some notes on the precambrian rocks of the Gros Morne National Park, western Newfoundland Report of activities, part B: November 1972 to March 1973, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 73-1B, 1973, 11 p.

Grant, D.R., 1973. Terrain conditions, Gros Morne National Park, western Newfoundland Report of activities, part B: November 1972 to March 1973, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 73-1B, 1973, 5 p.

Simpson, Wendy, 1973. Gulf of St. Lawrence Water Uses and Related Activities: A Cartographic Presentation / Golfe Saint-Laurent Utilisations des eaux et Activités Connexes: représentation cartographique Geographical Paper No. 53/Étude Géographique No. 53, 22 p., ©Department of the Environment, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1973.

E. Mountjoy, 1965. Stratigraphy of the Devonian Miette Reef Complex and Associated Strata, eastern Jasper National Park, Alberta, Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 110, 1965, 132 p. W.S. Mackenzie, 1969. Stratigraphy of the Devonian Southesk Cairn Carbonate Complex and Associated Strata, eastern Jasper National Park, Alberta, Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 184, 1969, 77 p.
D.W. Gibson, 1965. Triassic Stratigraphy near northern Boundary of Jasper National Park, Alberta, Geological Survey of Canada Paper 64-9, 1965, 144 p. R.A. Jamieson, P. Tallman, J.A. Marcotte, H.E. Plint, K.A. Connors, 1987. Geology of the West-Central Cape Breton Highlands, Nova Scotia, Geological Survey of Canada Paper 87-13, 1987, 11 p.
John A. Allan, 1914. Geology of Field Map-area, B.C. and Alberta, Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 55, No. 46 Geological Series, 1914, 312 p.

Van Everdingen, R.O., 1964. Report on investigation of Radium Hot Springs, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Geological Survey of Canada, Topical Report 97, 1964, 9 p.

Gibson, D.W., 1964. Triassic Rocks near the northern Boundary of Jasper National Park, Summary of Activities: Field, 1963; Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 64-1, 1964, 2 p.

Belyea, H.R. and D.J. McLaren, 1964. Devonian Correlations near Sunwapta Pass, Banff National Park, Alberta Summary of Activities: Office and Laboratory, 1963, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 64-2, 1964, 2 p.

Mountjoy, E.W., 1964. Stratigraphy of the Devonian Miette Reef Complex and Associated Strata, eastern Jasper National Park, Alberta, Summary of Activities: Office and Laboratory, 1963; Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 64-2, 1964, 3 p.

Gibson, D.W., 1963. Triassic Rocks near the northern Boundary of Jasper National Park, Summary of Research: Field, 1962; Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 63-1, 1963, 33 p.

McLaren, D.J., 1963. Alexo Equivalents in Sunwapta Pass Area, Banff National Park, Summary of Research: Field, 1962; Geological Survey of Canada, Paper no. 63-1, 1963, 34 p.

Mackenzie, W.S. and E.W. Mountjoy, 1972. Stratigraphy of the southern part of the Devonian ancient wall carbonate complex, Jasper National Park, Alberta, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 72-20, 1972.


Other Sources

Bear, Rhonda, 1990. The Holocene palaeoecology of Lorraine Lake, Jasper National Park, Alberta (University of Alberta Libraries)

Bednarski, Jan M., 1979. Holocene glacial and periglacial environments in the Whistlers Creek Valley, Jasper National Park (University of Alberta Libraries)

Blasco, S.M. 2001. Geological history of Fathom Five National Marine Park over the past 15,000 years, 2001, 18 p. (from Ecology, culture and conservation of a protected area: Fathom Five National Marine Park, Canada)

Bonny, Sandy Marie, 2002.Recent and fossil spring deposits at Miette Hot Springs, Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada (University of Alberta Libraries)

Cartier, Sarah B., 2010. Early Stages Of Calcareous Soil Reclamation Along The TMX-Anchor Loop Pipeline In Jasper National Park (University of Alberta Libraries)

Christiansen, E.A., undated. Geology of the Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan Institute of Pedology)

Couture, R. and S.G. Evans, 2000. The August 1999 debris flow in the vicinity of Banff, Banff National Park, Rocky Mountains, Alberta. 2000. (GeoCanada 2000 - The millennium geoscience summit)

Couture, R., S.G. Evans and A. Polster, 2004. Movement and mechanisms of a complex landslide: the case of East Gate Landslide, Glacier National Park, Canada, 2004. (from Landslides: evaluation and stabilization: proceedings of the ninth International Symposium on Landslides)

Evans, S.G., R. Couture, J. Locat, J. Hadjigeorgiou, P. Antoine and G. Brugnot, 1997. Two complex cataclinal slope failures in Paleozoic limestones, Rocky Mountains, Jasper National Park, Alberta (50th Canada Geotechnical Conference of the Canadian Geotechnical Society, 2007)

Fox, Julian Charles, 1974. Glacial geomorphology of the Cataract Brook Valley, Yoho National Park, British Columbia (University of Alberta Libraries)

Fraser, R.H., I. Olthof and D. Pouliot, 2009. Monitoring land cover change and ecological integrity in Canada's national parks (Remote Sensing of Environment vol. 113, issue 7, 2009)

Grasby, S.E. and D.A.W. Lepitski, 2002. Physical and chemical properties of the Sulphur Mountain thermal springs, Banff National Park, and implications for endangered snails (Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences vol. 39, no. 9, 2002)

Grasby, S.E., B.C. Richards, C.E. Sharpe, A.L. Brady, G.M. Jones and P.F. Dunfield, 2013. The Paint Pots, Kootenay National Park, Canada — a natural acid spring analogue for Mars (Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 50, 2013)

Hallett, D.J., L.V. Hills and J.J. Clague, 1997. New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages for the Mazama tephra layer from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia (Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 34, 1997)

Kruse, Pamela Beth, 1980. Karst investigations of Maligne Basin, Jasper National Park, Alberta (University of Alberta Libraries)

Locock, Andrew John, 1994. Aspects of the geochemistry and mineralogy of the Ice River alkaline intrusive complex, Yoho National Park, British Columbia (University of Alberta Libraries)

Levson, Victor M., 1986. Quaternary sedimentation and stratigraphy of montane glacial deposits in parts of Jasper National Park, Alberta (University of Alberta Libraries)

Sangster, A.L., P.K. Smith and G.E.M. Hall, 2005. Dissolved organic carbon and mercury reconnaissance survey of surface waters in Kejimkujik Park, 2005, 15 p. (from Mercury cycling in a wetland-dominated ecosystem: a multidisciplinary study, 2005)

Siciliano, S.D., A.L. Sangster, C.J. Daughney, N.J. O'Driscoll and D.R.S. Lean, 2005. Geological dependence of MeHg concentrations in wetlands of Kejimkujik National Park, 2005, 31 p. (from Mercury cycling in a wetland-dominated ecosystem: a multidisciplinary study, 2005)

Siciliano, S.D., A. Sangster, C.J. Daughney, L. Loseto, J.J. Germida, A.N. Rencz, N.J. O'Driscoll and D.R.S. Lean, 2003. Are methylmercury concentrations in the wetlands of Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada dependent on geology? 2003, 10p. (Journal of Environmental Quality vol. 32, issue 6, 2003)

Smith, P.K., A.L. Sangster and A-M. O'Beirne-Ryan, 2005. Bedrock mercury at Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, 2005, 65 p. (from Mercury cycling in a wetland-dominated ecosystem: a multidisciplinary study, 2005)

Taylor, William S., 1988.Paleopedology in the Cypress Hills and Waterton areas, Alberta (University of Alberta Libraries)

Tsui, Po Chow, 1984. Deformation, ground subsidence, and slope movements along the Salt River Escarpment in Wood Buffalo National Park (University of Alberta Libraries)

Wankiewicz, Patricia Mary, 1979. Sedimentation in Sunwapta Lake, Jasper National Park, Alberta (University of Alberta Libraries)

White, J.M. and G. Osborn, 1992. Evidence For a Mazama - Like Tephra Deposited Ca. 10 000 Bp At Copper Lake, Banff National Park, Alberta (Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences vol. 29, no. 1, 1992)

Wu, W., W.E. Sladen, L.D. Dyke, D.M. Whitaker, D. Walker and H.M. Stewart, 2009. Monitoring permafrost change in northern national parks -- technology and challenges of implementation in ecological monitoring and management (from Parks & technology, Proceedings of the eight annual parks and protected areas research forum of Manitoba; 2009, 6 p.)

Zhang, Y., J. Li, X. Wang, W. Chen, W. Sladen, L. Dyke, L. Dredge, J. Poitevin, D. McLennan, H. Stewart, S. Kowalchuk, W. Wu, G.P. Kershaw and R.K. Brook, 2012. Modelling and mapping permafrost at high spatial resolution in Wapusk National Park, Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 49, 2012)


This Website is not affiliated with Parks Canada nor Natural Resources Canada. The Geological Survey of Canada booklets have been reproduced with the permission of Natural Resources Canada 2013, courtesy of the Geological Survey of Canada. Due diligence has been employed in the conversion of these documents into electronic format so as to maintain the accuracy of the original. The electronic versions are a copy of the original documents as published and copyrighted by the Government of Canada and their reproduction was neither endorsed by, nor in affiliation with, the Government of Canada nor its agencies who originally created these works.

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Last Updated: 30-May-2017