Parks Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada

A History of Canada's National Parks
Volume IV
by W.F. Lothian




Chapter 7 — Preserving Canada's Wildlife


Early Conservation Measures
    Remedial Action Taken
    Game Protection Difficulties
    A Park Museum
    Park Buffalo Herd
    Demise of Sir Donald
    The Banff Zoo

Game Fish Propagation
    The Banff Hatchery
    Development of Splake
    Operations at Waterton Lakes
    Fish Culture at Jasper
    Spectacular Success
    Other Waters Stocked
    Parks Fisheries Investigations
    Angling Pressures Develop
    Central Hatchery Designated
    Consolidated Program Begun
    Losses From Diseases
    Rearing Problems at Jasper
    Hatchery is Closed

Preserving the Buffalo
    Slaughter Followed Settlement
    Privately-owned Herds
    The Pablo-Allard Herd
    Pablo's Herd Threatened
    Canadian Aid Sought
    Douglas Reports on the Herd
    Buffalo Purchase Approved
    Alternative Agreements Drawn
    New Agreement Completed
    Temporary Destination Selected
    The Buffalo Roundup
    Appropriation Increased
    New Contract Prepared
    An Unproductive Year
    First Shipments to Wainwright
    Later Shipments of Buffalo
    Corbin Herd Acquisition
    Pablo's Final Shipments

Buffalo National Park
    Park Administration
    Cattalo Experiment
    Growth of the Buffalo Herd
    Herd Reduction Measures
    Filming "The Last Frontier"
    Park Film Produced
    Shipments to Northern Canada
    Preparations for Shipment
    Additional Buffalo Transferred
    Park Problems Develop
    Slaughters Resumed
    End of the Road
    Hadwen's Report Reviewed
    Slaughters Completed
    Protests Received
    Military Takeover
    New Uses of Park
    Park Future Discussed
    Parks Are Abolished
    Buffalo Purchase Statistics

The Antelope Parks
    Drastic Losses
    Physical Characteristics
    Antelope at Banff
    Limited Success at Wainwright
    First Antelope Reserves
    Early Park Studies
    Canyon Antelope Reserve
    Reserves in Saskatchewan
    Early Reservations Cancelled
    Reservation near Foremost
    Grazing Privileges Granted
    Nemiskam Land Agreement
    Antelope Parks Established
    Menissawok Park Abolished
    Changes at Wawaskesy Park
    Abolition of Park Proposed
    Private Lands Acquired
    Park Inspection
    Soper's Wildlife Study
    Park Improvements
    Increase in Antelope
    Park Existence Criticized
    Rand's Antelope Census
    Nemiskam Park Abolished

Chapter 8 — The Canadian Wildlife Service

Extinct Bird Species
Early Conservation
Canadian Conservation Measures
The Commission of Conservation
Migratory Birds Treaty
Draft Treaty Submitted
Advisory Board on Wildlife Protection
Northwest Game Act
Wildlife Division Formed
Wildlife Officers Recruited
Educational Work
Assistance in Enforcement
Bird Sanctuaries
Public Shooting Grounds
Bird-Banding Registry
Division Activities Expanded
Buffalo Park Reductions
Conservation Commission Abolished
Drought on the Prairies
Administrative Changes
Additional Staff
Scientific Staff Engaged
Retirement of Hoyes Lloyd
Dr. Lewis Promoted
Dominion Wildlife Service
Service is Expanded
Further Reorganization
Investigation and Research
Dr. Lewis Retires
New Wildlife Chief
Service Evaluated
Advisory Board Abolished
Further Administrative Changes
Branch Status for Wildlife
New Director Appointed
Under New Ministry

Wildlife Research and Development
    Barren-Ground Caribou
    Muskoxen in Canada
    Extended Study Undertaken
    Bison Herd Problems
    Ornithological Research
    The Murre Study
    Whooping Cranes
    Other Studies

Birds and Air Travel
Making Airports Less Attractive

Canada Land Inventory
    Program Developed

Acquisition of Wetlands
Wildlife Interpretation
Interpretation Centres

Chapter 9 — Guardians of the Wild

First Forest Ranger
Warden Service Organized
Fire Pump Developed
Forest Conservation Stressed
Park Trails
Trail Riding and Hiking
Warden District Organization
Early Warden Stations
Warden Uniforms
Personnel Expansion

Ya-Ha-Tinda Ranch
    Early Occupation
    Ranch Withdrawn from Park
    Early Buildings Replaced
    Jurisdictional Difficulties
    Agreement with Province
    Present Status
    Public Use of the Ranch

Park Warden Training
    First Warden Schools
    Snowcraft Schools
    Mountain Rescue Responsibility
    Early Swiss Guides
    Spectacular Rescues
    Tragedy on Mount Temple
    Stricter Park Regulations
    Climbing Expert Engaged
    Death Takes a Holiday
    Training in Atlantic Parks

Annual Warden Gymkhana

Hazards of Employment
    Murder at Riding Mountain
    Hunting the Hunted
    Dangers Still Remain

Combatting Forest Fires
    Kootenay Park Holocaust
    Fire Again Strikes Kootenay
    Fire Advances Rapidly
    Hikers Rescued
    Fire Contained
    Fires in Other Parks
    Devastation in the East
    Northern Conflagrations

Long Service Achieved
Warden to Superintendent

Free Housing Abolished
    Amendments and New Regulations

Compensation Increased
Employment Status Altered
Shorter Work Day
The Changing Role of the Park Warden

Warden Study Undertaken
    The Study Recommendations
    The Warden Function
    Public Safety
    Law Enforcement
    Maintenance and Construction
    Warden Responsibility
    Warden Grade Structure

Proposed Training Program
Implementation of the Study

Chapter 10 — Minerals and Timber

Mineral Development
Early Coal Discoveries
Disposal of Coal Lands
Mining at Anthracite
The Bankhead Mine
Townsite Image Impaired
Mine is Closed
Disposal of Buildings
Decision Appealed
Townsite Cleanup
More About Anthracite
Townsite Lots Acquired
Coal Mining Resumed
Right-of-Way Required
More Property Acquired
More Expropriations
New Basis for Compensation
Anthracite Titles Extinguished
The Fairholme Ranch
Canada Cement Property
Interest in Jasper Park Land
Later Negotiations
Final Anthracite Acquisition
Other Coal Lands
Base Metals Production
Carleton Claim Acquired
Quartz Mining Regulations
Kootenay Park Mining Claims
Albion Group of Claims
Wartime Development
Zenith Mines Group
Mine Entrances Sealed
The Talc Mines
Red Mountain — Gold Dollar Claims
Wartime Operations
Silver Moon Claim
Ochre Springs or Paint Pots
Mineral Claims Staked
Glacier Park Claims
Round Hill and Donald Claims
Mine is Inspected
Donald Claim Lapses
Agreement to Purchase
Elizabeth Mining Claim
Proposal for Development
Later Development Proposals
Wood Buffalo National Park
Indian Land Claims
Commercial Timber Operations
Early Timber Rights
Parks Branch Takeover
New Timber Legislation
Changes in Policy
Licensees Ordered to Operate

Timber Berth 406
    Logging Operation Approved
    Timber Rights Sold
    Fire on Timber Berth
    Licence is Forfeited
    Final Extension Granted

Timber Berth 253
    Timber Licence Reinstated
    Licence is Surrendered

Other Licensees Notified
Highway Rights-of-Way Required
Other Licensees Exempted
Further Assignments

Negotiations for Berth 117
    Berth Valuation Escalated
    Purchase Completed

Kicking Horse Forest Products Berths
    Restrictions Laid Down
    Timber Exchange Explored
    Negotiations Revived
    Expropriation Recommended
    Financial Consultant Engaged
    Purchase Aftermath

Timber at Waterton Lakes
    Ownership in Doubt
    Legal Opinion Obtained
    Land Exchange Sought
    Compensation for Encroachment
    Exchange is Made
    Highway Reconstruction
    New Boundary Proposed

CPR Timbered Lands
    Volume of Cascade Timber

Wood Buffalo Park Timber

Chapter 11 — Park Education and Interpretation

First Park Museum
Museum Site Changed
Curator Appointed
Handbook Published
Museum Exhibit Reviewed
Encroachment on Floor Space
Museum Reorganized
Early Park Publications
Publicity Division Organized
Film Library Developed
Grey Owl
Division Reorganized
Merger With Travel Bureau
Education and Interpretation
Pioneer Efforts
Public Relations Officers
Interpretation Service Proposed
New Section Takes Form
Development of Programs
Publications for Interpretation
Information Activities Shared
Park Information Bureaus
Information and Interpretation Workshops
Shortage of Staff
Staff Additions Obtained
Advent of Panorama
Section Relocated
Palisades Training Centre
Dr. Stirrett Retires
New Chief Parks Naturalist
Field Staff Enlarged
Park Program Popular
Additional Nature Centres
Riding Mountain Interpretation Centre
Changes in Presentation
Interpretation Centres Expanded
Interpretive Program Broadened
On-Site Exhibits Constructed
Travelling Trailer Exhibit
Information Services Regrouped
Park Services Affected
Departmental Reorganization
New Director Appointed
New Publications Issued
Wild Rivers Featured
Audio-Visual Presentations
Interpretation Activities Expanded
Cheticamp Interpretation Centre
Research Projects
Interpretation Planning Decentralized
Early Interpretation Planning
Helmsley Bows Out
Additional Staff Acquired
Division Chief Appointed
1979 Administrative Changes
More Recent Programs
Parks Conservation Corps
Park Awareness Program
Low Power Radio Transmission
Communications Program
Cooperative Activities


About the Author

Published by authority of
the Minister of the Environment
©Minister of Supply and
Services Canada 1987

ISBN 0-662-11497-3

Symbol of the Government of Canada

Swiss guide Rudolph Aemmer stands on a ridge-pole of the continent. The west peak of Mount Victoria in the Canadian Rockies forms part of the continental divide which serves as the boundary between Banff and Yoho National Parks.

National Parks of Canada
(click on image for a PDF version)

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